Massive Fermi Gas in the Expanding Universe [CEA]

The behavior of a decoupled ideal Fermi gas in a homogeneously expanding three-dimensional volume is investigated, starting from an equilibrium spectrum. In case the gas is massless and/or completely degenerate, the spectrum of the gas can be described by an effective temperature and/or an effective chemical potential, both of which scale down with the volume expansion. In contrast, the spectrum of a decoupled massive and non-degenerate gas can only be described by an effective temperature if there are strong enough self-interactions such as to maintain an equilibrium distribution. Assuming perpetual equilibration, we study a decoupled gas which is relativistic at decoupling and then is red-shifted until it becomes non-relativistic. We find expressions for the effective temperature and effective chemical potential which allow us to calculate the final spectrum for arbitrary initial conditions. This calculation is enabled by a new expansion of the Fermi-Dirac integral, which is for our purpose superior to the well-known Sommerfeld expansion. We also compute the behavior of the phase space density under expansion and compare it to the case of real temperature and real chemical potential. Using our results for the degenerate case, we also obtain the mean relic velocity of the recently proposed non-thermal cosmic neutrino background.

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A. Trautner
Thu, 22 Dec 16

Comments: 19 pages, 16 figures

Microscopic Study of ${}^1{S_0}$ Superfluidity in Dilute Neutron Matter [CL]

Singlet $S$-wave superfluidity of dilute neutron matter is studied within the correlated BCS method, which takes into account both pairing and short-range correlations. First, the equation of state (EOS) of normal neutron matter is calculated within the Correlated Basis Function (CBF) method in lowest cluster order using the ${}^1{S_0}$ and ${}^3P$ components of the Argonne $V_{18}$ potential, assuming trial Jastrow-type correlation functions. The ${}^1{S_0}$ superfluid gap is then calculated with the corresponding component of the Argonne $V_{18}$ potential and the optimally determined correlation functions. The dependence of our results on the chosen forms for the correlation functions is studied, and the role of the $P$-wave channel is investigated. Where comparison is meaningful, the values obtained for the ${}^1{S_0}$ gap within this simplified scheme are consistent with the results of similar and more elaborate microscopic methods.

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G. Pavlou, E. Mavrommatis, C. Moustakidis, et. al.
Thu, 8 Dec 16

Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures

Unitary Gas Constraints on Nuclear Symmetry Energy [CL]

We show the existence of a lower bound on the volume symmetry energy parameter $S_0$ from unitary gas considerations. We further demonstrate that values of $S_0$ above this minimum imply upper and lower bounds on the symmetry energy parameter $L$ describing its lowest-order density dependence. The bounds are found to be consistent with both recent calculations of the energies of pure neutron matter and constraints from nuclear experiments. These results are significant because many equations of state in active use for simulations of nuclear structure, heavy ion collisions, supernovae, neutron star mergers, and neutron star structure violate these constraints.

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E. Kolomeitsev, J. Lattimer, A. Ohnishi, et. al.
Wed, 23 Nov 16

Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures

Condensate of excitations in moving superfluids [CL]

A possibility of the condensation of excitations with a non-zero momentum in rectilinearly moving and rotating superfluid bosonic and fermionic (with Cooper pairing) media is considered in terms of a phenomenological order-parameter functional at zero and non-zero temperature. The results might be applicable to the description of bosonic systems like superfluid $^4$He, ultracold atomic Bose gases, charged pion and kaon condensates in rotating neutron stars, and various superconducting fermionic systems with pairing, like proton and color-superconducting components in compact stars, metallic superconductors, and neutral fermionic systems with pairing, like the neutron component in compact stars and ultracold atomic Fermi gases. Order parameters of the “mother” condensate in the superfluid and the new condensate of excitations, corresponding energy gains, critical temperatures and critical velocities are found.

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E. Kolomeitsev and D. Voskresensky
Mon, 21 Nov 16

Comments: 15 pages, 1 figure reworked and extended version of arXiv:1501.00731 submitted to Prog. Theor Exp. Phys

Microscopic Calculations of Vortex-Nucleus Interaction in the Neutron Star Crust [CL]

We investigate the dynamics of a quantized vortex and a nuclear impurity immersed in a neutron superfluid within a fully microscopic time-dependent three-dimensional approach. The magnitude and even the sign of the force between the quantized vortex and the nuclear impurity have been a matter of debate for over four decades. We determine that the vortex and the impurity repel at neutron densities, 0.014 fm$^{-3}$ and 0.031 fm$^{-3}$, which are relevant to the neutron star crust and the origin of glitches, while previous calculations have concluded that the force changes its sign between these two densities and predicted contradictory signs. The magnitude of the force increases with the density of neutron superfluid, while the magnitude of the pairing gap decreases in this density range.

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K. Sekizawa, G. Wlazlowski, P. Magierski, et. al.
Wed, 14 Sep 16

Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures, Talk given at the 14th International Symposium on “Nuclei in the Cosmos” (NIC-XIV), June 19-24, 2016, Toki Messe, Niigata, Japan

Ab initio and phenomenological studies of the static response of neutron matter [CL]

We investigate the problem of periodically modulated strongly interacting neutron matter. We carry out ab initio non-perturbative auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo calculations using an external sinusoidal potential in addition to phenomenological two- and three-nucleon interactions. Several choices for the wave function ansatz are explored and special care is taken to extrapolate finite-sized results to the thermodynamic limit. We perform calculations at various densities as well as at different strengths and periodicities of the one-body potential. Our microscopic results are then used to constrain the isovector term from energy-density functional theories of nuclei at many different densities, while making sure to separate isovector contributions from bulk properties. Lastly, we use our results to extract the static density-density linear response function of neutron matter at different densities. Our findings provide insights into inhomogeneous neutron matter and are related to the physics of neutron-star crusts and neutron-rich nuclei.

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M. Buraczynski and A. Gezerlis
Mon, 15 Aug 16

Comments: 11 pages, 14 figures

Inflationary quasiparticle creation and thermalization dynamics in coupled Bose-Einstein condensates [CL]

A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, non-equilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanche-like QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our set-up occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.

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A. Posazhennikova, M. Trujillo-Martinez and J. Kroha
Tue, 7 Jun 16

Comments: 5 pages, 4 Figures, final version accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett