Photonic Chiral Vortical Effect [CL]

Circularly polarized photons have the Berry curvature in the semiclassical regime. Based on the kinetic equation for such chiral photons, we derive the (non)equilibrium expression of the photon current in the direction of the vorticity. We briefly discuss the relevance of this “photonic chiral vortical effect” in pulsars and rotating massive stars and its possible realization in semiconductors.

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N. Yamamoto
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: 9 pages

The gluon condensation at high energy hadron collisions [CL]

We report that the saturation/CGC model of gluon distribution is unstable under action of the chaotic solution in a nonlinear QCD evolution equation, and it evolves to the distribution with a sharp peak at the critical momentum. We find that this gluon condensation is caused by a new kind of shadowing-antishadowing effects, and it leads to a series of unexpected effects in high energy hadron collisions including astrophysical events. For example, the extremely intense fluctuations in the transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions of the gluon jets present the gluon-jet bursts; a sudden increase of the proton-proton cross sections may fill the GZK suppression; the blocking QCD evolution will restrict the maximum available energy of the hadron-hadron colliders.

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W. Zhu and J. Lan
Thu, 9 Feb 17

Comments: 45 pages, 19 figures, to be published in Nucl. Phys. B

Neutron Stars in the Laboratory [HEAP]

Neutron stars are astrophysical laboratories of many extremes of physics. Their rich phenomenology provides insights into the state and composition of matter at densities which cannot be reached in terrestrial experiments. Since the core of a mature neutron star is expected to be dominated by superfluid and superconducting components, observations also probe the dynamics of large-scale quantum condensates. The testing and understanding of the relevant theory tends to focus on the interface between the astrophysics phenomenology and nuclear physics. The connections with low-temperature experiments tend to be ignored. However, there has been dramatic progress in understanding laboratory condensates (from the different phases of superfluid helium to the entire range of superconductors and cold atom condensates). In this review, we provide an overview of these developments, compare and contrast the mathematical descriptions of laboratory condensates and neutron stars and summarise the current experimental state-of-the-art. This discussion suggests novel ways that we may make progress in understanding neutron star physics using low-temperature laboratory experiments.

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V. Graber, N. Andersson and M. Hogg
Mon, 24 Oct 16

Comments: N/A

Detecting continuous gravitational waves with superfluid $^4$He [CL]

Direct detection of gravitational waves is opening a new window onto our universe. Here, we study the sensitivity to continuous-wave strain fields of a kg-scale optomechanical system formed by the acoustic motion of superfluid helium-4 parametrically coupled to a superconducting microwave cavity. This narrowband detection scheme can operate at very high $Q$-factors, while the resonant frequency is tunable through pressurization of the helium in the 0.1-1.5 kHz range. The detector can therefore be tuned to a variety of astrophysical sources and can remain sensitive to a particular source over a long period of time. For reasonable experimental parameters, we find that strain fields on the order of $h\sim 10^{-23} /\sqrt{\rm Hz}$ are detectable. We show that the proposed system can significantly improve the limits on gravitational wave strain from nearby pulsars within a few months of integration time.

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S. Singh, L. Lorenzo, I. Pikovski, et. al.
Fri, 17 Jun 16

Comments: N/A

On the Detectability of Light Dark Matter with Superfluid Helium [CL]

We show that a two-excitation process in superfluid helium, combined with sensitivity to meV energy depositions, can probe dark matter down to the ~keV warm dark matter mass limit. This mass reach is three orders of magnitude below what can be probed with ordinary nuclear recoils in helium at the same energy resolution. The kinematics of the process requires the two athermal excitations to have nearly equal and opposite momentum, potentially providing a built-in coincidence mechanism for controlling backgrounds.

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K. Schutz and K. Zurek
Fri, 29 Apr 16

Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures

Half-quantized Non-Abelian Vortices in Neutron $^3P_2$ Superfluids inside Magnetars [CL]

We point out that half-quantized non-Abelian vortices exist as the minimum energy states in rotating neutron $^3P_2$ superfluids in the inner cores of magnetars with magnetic field greater than $3 \times 10^{15}$ Gauss, while they do not in ordinary neutron stars with smaller magnetic fields. One integer vortex is split into two half-quantized vortices. The number of vortices is about $10^{19}$ and they are separated at about $\mu$m in a vortex lattice for typical parameters, while the vortex core size is about 10-100 fm. They are non-Abelian vortices characterized by non-Abelian first homotopy group, and consequently when two vortices corresponding to non-commutative elements collide, a rung vortex must be created between them, implying the formation of an entangled vortex network inside the cores of magnetars. We find the spontaneous magnetization in the vortex core showing anti-ferromagnetism whose typical magnitude is about $10^{8-9}$ Gauss that is ten times larger than that of integer vortices, when external magnetic fields are present along the vortex line.

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K. Masuda and M. Nitta
Wed, 24 Feb 16

Comments: 7 pages, 2 figures

CO2 hydrate dissociation at low temperatures – formation and annealing of ice Ic [CL]

Dissociation of gas hydrates below 240 K leads to the formation of a metastable form of water ice, so called cubic ice (Ic). Through its defective nature and small particle size the surface film composed of such material is incapable of creating any significant diffusion barrier. Above 160 K, cubic ice gradually transforms to the stable hexagonal (Ih) form on laboratory time scales. The annealing, coupled with a parallel decomposition of gas hydrates, accelerates as temperature rises but already above 190 K the first process prevails, transforming cubic stacking sequences in-to ordinary Ih ice within a few minutes. Remaining stacking faults are removed through very slow isothermal annealing or after heating up above 240 K. The role of the proportion of cubic stacking on the decomposition rate is discussed. A better understanding of the dissociation kinetics at low temperatures is particularly im-portant for the critical evaluation of existing hypotheses that consider clathrates as a potential medium that actively participate in geological processes or is able to store gases (e.g. CH4, CO2 or Xe) in environments like comets, icy moons (i. e. Titan, Europa, Enceladus) or on Mars. Here, we present kinetics studies on the dissociation of CO2 clathrates at isothermal and isobaric conditions between 170 and 190K and mean Martian surface pressure. We place special attention to the formed ice and demonstrate its influence on the dissociation rates with a combination of neutron diffraction studies (performed on D20 at ILL/Grenoble) and cryo-SEM. More detailed crystallo-graphic information has been acquired via a flexible stacking-fault model capable of revealing the time evolution of the defect structure of ice Ic in terms of stacking probabilities and crystal size.

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A. Falenty, T. Hansen and W. Kuhs
Wed, 28 Oct 15

Comments: Unpublished contribution to the 7th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH-7), Edinburgh, UK, 17-21 July 2011 (was only available to the conference participants)

A Dark Matter Superfluid [CEA]

In this talk we present a novel framework that unifies the stunning success of MOND on galactic scales with the triumph of the LambdaCDM model on cosmological scales. This is achieved through the rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity. The dark matter and MOND components have a common origin, representing different phases of a single underlying substance. In galaxies, dark matter thermalizes and condenses to form a superfluid phase. The superfluid phonons couple to baryonic matter particles and mediate a MOND-like force. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful) and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not): dark matter has a higher temperature in clusters, and hence is in a mixture of superfluid and normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of striking observational signatures, which we briefly discuss. Remarkably the critical temperature and equation of state of the dark matter superfluid are similar to those of known cold atom systems. Identifying a precise cold atom analogue would give important insights on the microphysical interactions underlying DM superfluidity. Tantalizingly, it might open the possibility of simulating the properties and dynamics of galaxies in laboratory experiments.

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J. Khoury
Tue, 14 Jul 15

Comments: 8 pages. To appear in the proceedings of the 2015 Rencontres de Moriond, “Gravitation: 100 years after GR”

Magneto-structural transformations via a solid-state nudged elastic band method: Application to iron under pressure [CL]

We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter – in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron – from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yet all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.

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N. Zarkevich and D. Johnson
Fri, 5 Jun 15

Comments: 7 pages, 7 figures

Oscillatory superfluid Ekman pumping in Helium II and neutron stars [CL]

The linear response of a superfluid, rotating uniformly in a cylindrical container and threaded with a large number of vortex lines, to an impulsive increase in the angular velocity of the container is investigated. At zero temperature and with perfect pinning of vortices to the top and bottom of the container, we demonstrate that the system oscillates persistently with a frequency proportional to the vortex line tension parameter to the quarter power. This low-frequency mode is generated by a secondary flow analogous to classical Ekman pumping that is periodically reversed by the vortex tension in the boundary layers. We compare analytic solutions to the two-fluid equations of Chandler & Baym (1986) with the spin-up experiments of Tsakadze & Tsakadze (1980) in helium II and find the frequency agrees within a factor of four, although the experiment is not perfectly suited to the application of the linear theory. We argue that this oscillatory Ekman pumping mode, and not Tkachenko modes provide a natural explanation for the observed oscillation. In neutron stars, the oscillation period depends on the pinning interaction between neutron vortices and flux tubes in the outer core. Using a simplified pinning model, we demonstrate that strong pinning can accommodate modes with periods of days, which are only weakly damped by mutual friction over a timescale of months.

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C. Eysden
Tue, 5 May 15

Comments: 25 pages, 6 figures, submitted to Journal of Fluid Mechanics

Thermal conductivity of the neutron star crust: A reappraisal [HEAP]

We use classical and quantum Monte Carlo techniques to study the static structure function $S(q)$ of a one-component ion lattice and use it to calculate the thermal conductivity $\kappa$ of high-density solid matter expected in the neutron star crust. We also calculate the phonon spectrum using the dynamic-matrix method and use it to obtain $\kappa$ in the one-phonon approximation. We compare the results obtained with these methods and assess the validity of some commonly used approximations in the literature. We find that quantum effects became relevant for the calculation of $\kappa$ when the temperature $T\lesssim 0.3~\Omega_\mathrm{P}$, where $\Omega_\mathrm{P}$ is the ion plasma frequency. Dynamical information beyond the static structure becomes relevant when $T\lesssim 0.1~\Omega_\mathrm{P}$. We discuss the implications of these findings for calculations of $\kappa$ in multi-component systems and identify strategies for using Monte Carlo techniques in future work.

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S. Abbar, J. Carlson, H. Duan, et. al.
Fri, 6 Mar 15

Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures

Cubic wavefunction deformation of compressed atoms [CL]

We hypothesize that in a non-metallic crystalline structure under extreme pressures, atomic wavefunctions deform to adopt a reduced rotational symmetry consistent with minimizing interstitial space in the crystal. We exemplify with a simple numeric variational calculation that yields the energy cost of this deformation for Helium to 25%. Balancing this with the free energy gained by tighter packing we obtain the pressures required to effect such deformation. The consequent modification of the structure suggests a decrease in the resistance to tangential stress, and an associated decrease of the crystal’s shear modulus. The atomic form factor is also modified. We also compare with neutron matter in the interior of compact stars.

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P. Portela and F. Llanes-Estrada
Fri, 13 Feb 15

Comments: 6 pages, 13 figure files

The Leading Correction to the Thomas-Fermi Model at Finite Temperature [CL]

The semi-classical approach leading to the Thomas-Fermi (TF) model provides a simple universal thermodynamic description of the electronic cloud surrounding the nucleus in an atom. This model is known to be exact at the limit of $Z\rightarrow\infty$, i.e., infinite nuclear charge, at finite density and temperature. Motivated by the zero-temperature case, we show in the current letter that the correction to TF due to quantum treatment of the strongly bound inner-most electrons, for which the semi-classical approximation breaks, scales as $Z^{-1/3}$, with respect to the TF solution. As such, it is more dominant than the quantum corrections to the kinetic energy, as well as exchange and correlation, which are known to be suppressed by $Z^{-2/3}$. We conjecture that this is the leading correction for this model. In addition, we present a different free energy functional for the TF model, and a successive functional that includes the strongly bound electrons correction. We use this corrected functional to derive a self-consistent potential and the electron density in the atom, and to calculate the corrected energy. At this stage, our model has a built-in validity limit, breaking as the L shell ionizes.

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E. Segev and D. Gazit
Tue, 9 Dec 14

Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures, 1 table

Iron under pressure: bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence revisited [CL]

We revisit results from decades of pressure experiments on the bcc – hcp transformations in iron, which are sensitive to non-hydrostatic conditions and sample size. We emphasize the role of martensitic stress in the observed pressure hysteresis and address the large spread in values for onset pressures of the nucleating phase. From electronic-structure calculations, we find a bcc – hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa. Accounting for non-hydrostatic martensitic stress and a stress-dependent transition barrier, we suggest a pressure inequality for better comparison to experiment and observed hysteresis. We construct the equation of state for bcc and hcp phases under hydrostatic pressure, and compare to experiments and previous calculations.

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N. Zarkevich and D. Johnson
Mon, 8 Dec 14

Comments: 9 pages, 1 figure, 199 citations

Bose-Einstein Condensate strings [CL]

We consider the possible existence of gravitationally bound general relativistic strings consisting of Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) matter which is described, in the Newtonian limit, by the zero temperature time-dependent nonlinear Schr{\”}odinger equation (the Gross-Pitaevskii equation), with repulsive inter-particle interactions. In the Madelung representation of the wave function, the quantum dynamics of the condensate can be formulated in terms of the classical continuity equation and the hydrodynamic Euler equations. In the case of a condensate with quartic nonlinearity, the condensates can be described as a gas with two pressure terms, the interaction pressure, which is proportional to the square of the matter density, and the quantum pressure, which is without any classical analogue though, when the number of particles in the system is high enough, the latter may be neglected. By assuming cylindrical symmetry, we analyze the physical properties of the BEC strings in both the interaction pressure and quantum pressure dominated limits, by numerically integrating the gravitational field equations. In this way we obtain a large class of stable string-like astrophysical objects, whose basic parameters (mass density and radius) depend sensitively on the mass and scattering length of the condensate particle, as well as on the quantum pressure of the Bose-Einstein gas.

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T. Harko and M. Lake
Tue, 28 Oct 14

Comments: 18 pages, 16 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:hep-ph/0504083 by other authors

Astrophysical Bose-Einstein Condensates and Superradiance [CL]

We investigate gravitational analogue models to describe slowly rotating objects (e.g., dark-matter halos, or boson stars) in terms of Bose-Einstein condensates, trapped in their own gravitational potentials. We begin with a modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and show that the resulting background equations of motion are stable, as long as the rotational component is treated as a small perturbation. The dynamics of the fluctuations of the velocity potential are effectively governed by the Klein-Gordon equation of a “Eulerian metric”, where we derive the latter by the use of a relativistic Lagrangian extrapolation. Superradiant scattering on such objects is studied. We derive conditions for its occurence and estimate its strength. Our investigations might give an observational handle to phenomenologically constrain Bose-Einstein condensates.

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F. Kuhnel and C. Rampf
Tue, 5 Aug 14

Comments: 20 pages, 3 figures

Giant Planets [EPA]

We review the interior structure and evolution of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and giant exoplanets with particular emphasis on constraining their global composition. Compared to the first edition of this review, we provide a new discussion of the atmospheric compositions of the solar system giant planets, we discuss the discovery of oscillations of Jupiter and Saturn, the significant improvements in our understanding of the behavior of material at high pressures and the consequences for interior and evolution models. We place the giant planets in our Solar System in context with the trends seen for exoplanets.

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T. Guillot and D. Gautier
Fri, 16 May 14

Comments: This chapter has been finished in February 2014 for publication in the second edition of the Treatise on Geophysics. 42 pages, 16 figures

Rotating analogue black holes: Quasinormal modes and tails, superresonance, and sonic bombs and plants in the draining bathtub acoustic hole [CL]

The analogy between sound wave propagation and light waves led to the study of acoustic holes, the acoustic analogues of black holes. Many black hole features have their counterparts in acoustic holes. The Kerr metric, the rotating metric for black holes in general relativity, has as analogue the draining bathtub metric, a metric for a rotating acoustic hole. Here we report on the progress that has been made in the understanding of features, such as quasinormal modes and tails, superresonance, and instabilities when the hole is surrounded by a reflected mirror, in the draining bathtub metric. Given then the right settings one can build up from these instabilities an apparatus that stores energy in the form of amplified sound waves. This can be put to wicked purposes as in a bomb, or to good profit as in a sonic plant.

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Tue, 31 Dec 13