Formulation of discontinuous Galerkin methods for relativistic astrophysics [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.01190


The DG algorithm is a powerful method for solving pdes, especially for evolution equations in conservation form. Since the algorithm involves integration over volume elements, it is not immediately obvious that it will generalize easily to arbitrary time-dependent curved spacetimes. We show how to formulate the algorithm in such spacetimes for applications in relativistic astrophysics. We also show how to formulate the algorithm for equations in non-conservative form, such as Einstein’s field equations themselves. We find two computationally distinct formulations in both cases, one of which has seldom been used before for flat space in curvilinear coordinates but which may be more efficient. We also give a new derivation of the ALE algorithm (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) using 4-vector methods that is much simpler than the usual derivation and explains why the method preserves the conservation form of the equations. The various formulations are explored with some simple numerical experiments that also explore the effect of the metric identities on the results.

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S. Teukolsky
Tue, 6 Oct 15
55/78

Comments: N/A

Tensor calculus in polar coordinates using Jacobi polynomials [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1509.07624


Spectral methods are an efficient way to solve partial differential equations on domains possessing certain symmetries. The utility of a method depends strongly on the choice of spectral basis. In this paper we describe a set of bases built out of Jacobi polynomials, and associated operators for solving scalar, vector, and tensor partial differential equations in polar coordinates on a unit disk. By construction, the bases satisfy regularity conditions at r=0 for any tensorial field. The coordinate singularity in a disk is a prototypical case for many coordinate singularities. The work presented here extends to other geometries. The operators represent covariant derivatives, multiplication by azimuthally symmetric functions, and the tensorial relationship between fields. These arise naturally from relations between classical orthogonal polynomials, and form a Heisenberg algebra. Other past work uses more specific polynomial bases for solving equations in polar coordinates. The main innovation in this paper is to use a larger set of possible bases to achieve maximum bandedness of linear operations. We provide a series of applications of the methods, illustrating their ease-of-use and accuracy.

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G. Vasil, K. Burns, D. Lecoanet, et. al.
Mon, 28 Sep 15
38/67

Comments: 43 pages, 8 figures. Submitted to SIAM Review

Numerical methods for solution of the stochastic differential equations equivalent to the non-stationary Parker's transport equation [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1509.06890


We derive the numerical schemes for the strong order integration of the set of the stochastic differential equations (SDEs) corresponding to the non-stationary Parker transport equation (PTE). PTE is 5-dimensional (3 spatial coordinates, particles energy and time) Fokker- Planck type equation describing the non-stationary the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles transport in the heliosphere. We present the formulas for the numerical solution of the obtained set of SDEs driven by a Wiener process in the case of the full three-dimensional diffusion tensor. We introduce the solution applying the strong order Euler-Maruyama, Milstein and stochastic Runge-Kutta methods. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the presented numerical methods in the context of increasing the accuracy of the solution of the PTE.

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A. Wawrzynczak, R. Modzelewska and M. Kluczek
Thu, 24 Sep 15
20/60

Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures, presented on 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences, 2015

Stochastic approach to the numerical solution of the non-stationary Parker's transport equation [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1509.06523


We present the newly developed stochastic model of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles transport in the heliosphere. Mathematically Parker transport equation (PTE) describing non-stationary transport of charged particles in the turbulent medium is the Fokker-Planck type. It is the second order parabolic time-dependent 4-dimensional (3 spatial coordinates and particles energy/rigidity) partial differential equation. It is worth to mention that, if we assume the stationary case it remains as the 3-D parabolic type problem with respect to the particles rigidity R. If we fix the energy it still remains as the 3-D parabolic type problem with respect to time. The proposed method of numerical solution is based on the solution of the system of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) being equivalent to the Parker’s transport equation. We present the method of deriving from PTE the equivalent SDEs in the heliocentric spherical coordinate system for the backward approach. The obtained stochastic model of the Forbush decrease of the GCR intensity is in an agreement with the experimental data. The advantages and disadvantages of the forward and the backward solution of the PTE are discussed.

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A. Wawrzynczak, R. Modzelewska and A. Gil
Wed, 23 Sep 15
38/63

Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures, presented on International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences, 2014

A stochastic method of solution of the Parker transport equation [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1509.06519


We present the stochastic model of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles transport in the heliosphere. Based on the solution of the Parker transport equation we developed models of the short-time variation of the GCR intensity, i.e. the Forbush decrease (Fd) and the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity. Parker transport equation being the Fokker-Planck type equation delineates non-stationary transport of charged particles in the turbulent medium. The presented approach of the numerical solution is grounded on solving of the set of equivalent stochastic differential equations (SDEs). We demonstrate the method of deriving from Parker transport equation the corresponding SDEs in the heliocentric spherical coordinate system for the backward approach. Features indicative the preeminence of the backward approach over the forward is stressed. We compare the outcomes of the stochastic model of the Fd and 27-day variation of the GCR intensity with our former models established by the finite difference method. Both models are in an agreement with the experimental data.

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A. Wawrzynczak, R. Modzelewska and A. Gil
Wed, 23 Sep 15
46/63

Comments: 8 pages, 7 figures, presented on 24th European Cosmic Ray Symposium 2014

Space-time adaptive ADER discontinuous Galerkin finite element schemes with a posteriori sub-cell finite volume limiting [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1412.0081


In this paper we present a novel arbitrary high order accurate discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method on space-time adaptive Cartesian meshes (AMR) for hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple space dimensions, using a high order \aposteriori sub-cell ADER-WENO finite volume \emph{limiter}. Notoriously, the original DG method produces strong oscillations in the presence of discontinuous solutions and several types of limiters have been introduced over the years to cope with this problem. Following the innovative idea recently proposed in \cite{Dumbser2014}, the discrete solution within the troubled cells is \textit{recomputed} by scattering the DG polynomial at the previous time step onto a suitable number of sub-cells along each direction. Relying on the robustness of classical finite volume WENO schemes, the sub-cell averages are recomputed and then gathered back into the DG polynomials over the main grid. In this paper this approach is implemented for the first time within a space-time adaptive AMR framework in two and three space dimensions, after assuring the proper averaging and projection between sub-cells that belong to different levels of refinement. The combination of the sub-cell resolution with the advantages of AMR allows for an unprecedented ability in resolving even the finest details in the dynamics of the fluid. The spectacular resolution properties of the new scheme have been shown through a wide number of test cases performed in two and in three space dimensions, both for the Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics and for the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations.

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O. Zanotti, F. Fambri, M. Dumbser, et. al.
Thu, 3 Sep 15
53/58

Comments: Computers and Fluids 118 (2015) 204-224

Orthogonal systems of Zernike type in polygons and polygonal facets [IMA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.07396


Zernike polynomials are commonly used to represent the wavefront phase on circular optical apertures, since they form a complete and orthonormal basis on the unit disk. In [Diaz et all, 2014] we introduced a new Zernike basis for elliptic and annular optical apertures based on an appropriate diffeomorphism between the unit disk and the ellipse and the annulus. Here, we present a generalization of this Zernike basis for a variety of important optical apertures, paying special attention to polygons and the polygonal facets present in segmented mirror telescopes. On the contrary to ad hoc solutions, most of them based on the Gram-Smith orthonormalization method, here we consider a piece-wise diffeomorphism that transforms the unit disk into the polygon under consideration. We use this mapping to define a Zernike-like orthonormal system over the polygon. We also consider ensembles of polygonal facets that are essential in the design of segmented mirror telescopes. This generalization, based on in-plane warping of the basis functions, provides a unique solution, and what is more important, it guarantees a reasonable level of invariance of the mathematical properties and the physical meaning of the initial basis functions. Both, the general form and the explicit expressions for a typical example of telescope optical aperture are provided.

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C. Ferreira, J. Lopez, R. Navarro, et. al.
Thu, 25 Jun 15
39/45

Comments: 17 pages, 10 figures