How Well Do We Know The Supernova Equation of State? [CL]

We give an overview about equations of state (EOS) which are currently available for simulations of core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers. A few selected important aspects of the EOS, such as the symmetry energy, the maximum mass of neutron stars, and cluster formation, are confronted with constraints from experiments and astrophysical observations. There are just very few models which are compatible even with this very restricted set of constraints. These remaining models illustrate the uncertainty of the uniform nuclear matter EOS at high densities. In addition, at finite temperatures the medium modifications of nuclear clusters represent a conceptual challenge. In conclusion, there has been significant development in the recent years, but there is still need for further improved general purpose EOS tables.

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M. Hempel, M. Oertel, S. Typel, et. al.
Mon, 13 Mar 17

Comments: 6 pages, 1 table, 1 figure; proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC2016)

High-mass twin stars with a multi-polytrope EoS [CL]

We show that in the 3-polytropes model of Hebeler et al. \cite{Hebeler:2013nza} for the neutron star equation of state at supersaturation densities a third family of compact stars can be obtained which confirms the possibility of high-mass twin stars that have coincident masses $M_1=M_2\approx 2~M_\odot$ and significantly different radii $|R_1-R_2|>2-3 $ km. We consider a scenario of a first order phase transition which eliminates one of the three polytropes from the star structure and results in a sharp boundary between a high-density and low-density phase.

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D. Alvarez-Castillo and D. Blaschke
Thu, 9 Mar 17

Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures, 1 table

Quantum Nuclear Pasta and Nuclear Symmetry Energy [CL]

Complex and exotic nuclear geometries are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crust of neutron stars and supernovae environment collectively referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crust of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities $0.03 \leq \rho \leq 0.10$ fm$^{-3}$, proton fractions $0.05 \leq Y_p \leq 0.40$, and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state of the art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons $A=2000$ is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at $T=0$ MeV are shown to get easily trapped in meta-stable states, and possible remedies to avoid meta-stable solutions are discussed.

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F. Fattoyev, C. Horowitz and B. Schuetrumpf
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: 23 pages, 18 figures, 8 tables

Pinning down the superfluid and nuclear equation of state and measuring neutron star mass using pulsar glitches [HEAP]

Pulsars are rotating neutron stars that are renowned for their timing precision, although glitches can interrupt the regular timing behavior when these stars are young. Glitches are thought to be caused by interactions between normal and superfluid matter in the star. We update our recent work on a new technique using pulsar glitch data to constrain superfluid and nuclear equation of state models, demonstrating how current and future astronomy telescopes can probe fundamental physics such as superfluidity near nuclear saturation and matter at supranuclear densities. Unlike traditional methods of measuring a star’s mass by its gravitational effect on another object, our technique relies on nuclear physics knowledge and therefore allows measurement of the mass of pulsars which are in isolation.

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W. Ho, C. Espinoza, D. Antonopoulou, et. al.
Mon, 6 Mar 17

Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures; proceedings of Nuclei in the Cosmos 2016 in Niigata, Japan, S. Kubono (ed.)

Constructing a neutron star in G2-QCD [HEAP]

The inner structure of neutron stars is still an open question. To make progress and understand the qualitative impact of gauge interactions on the neutron star structure we study neutron stars in a modified version of QCD. In this modification the gauge group of QCD is replaced by the exceptional Lie group G$_2$, which has neutrons and is accessible at finite density in lattice calculations. Using an equation of state constructed from lattice calculations we determine the mass-radius-relation for a neutron star in this theory using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. The results exhibit an influence of the non-trivial interactions on the mass-radius relation. However, the masses of the quarks are found to have little influence. We also give density profiles and the phase structure inside the neutron star. If the results carry over to full QCD, much of the internal structure of neutron stars could already be inferred from a precise measurement of the mass-radius relation.

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O. Hajizadeh and A. Maas
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: (19 pages, 9 figures)

Neutrino Emission from Supernovae [HEAP]

Supernovae are the most powerful cosmic sources of MeV neutrinos. These elementary particles play a crucial role when the evolution of a massive star is terminated by the collapse of its core to a neutron star or a black hole and the star explodes as supernova. The release of electron neutrinos, which are abundantly produced by electron captures, accelerates the catastrophic infall and causes a gradual neutronization of the stellar plasma by converting protons to neutrons as dominant constituents of neutron star matter. The emission of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors carries away the gravitational binding energy of the compact remnant and drives its evolution from the hot initial to the cold final state. The absorption of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos in the surroundings of the newly formed neutron star can power the supernova explosion and determines the conditions in the innermost supernova ejecta, making them an interesting site for the nucleosynthesis of iron-group elements and trans-iron nuclei. In this Chapter the basic neutrino physics in supernova cores and nascent neutron stars will be discussed. This includes the most relevant neutrino production, absorption, and scattering processes, elementary aspects of neutrino transport in dense environments, the characteristic neutrino emission phases with their typical signal features, and the perspectives connected to a measurement of the neutrino signal from a future galactic supernova.

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H. Janka
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: Author version of chapter for ‘Handbook of Supernovae,’ edited by A. Alsabti and P. Murdin, Springer. 30 pages, 9 figures

Hybrid Quark Stars With Strong Magnetic Field [HEAP]

Discovery of huge magnetic field in magnetars has stimulated a renewed interest about the magnetic field and physics of compact stars, where microphysics such as QED or QCD may play active parts.
Here we discuss the equation of state (EOS) of quark matter in the core of compact stars by taking into account the strong magnetic field. We show that quark EOS becomes very stiff in the presence of the strong magnetic field, and becomes stiffest under the causality condition beyond the threshold strength of $B_c\sim O(10^{19})$ G. This is because quarks make the Landau levels in the presence of the magnetic field and thereby only the lowest Landau level is occupied in the extreme case beyond $B_c$. Thus quarks can freely move along the magnetic field with localization in the perpendicular plane, which resembles the quasi-one dimensional systems and gives rise to a stiff EOS. Consequently, we may easily produce high-mass stars beyond two solar mass.
As another interesting possibility, we discuss the appearance of the third family of compact stars, succeeding white dwarfs and neutron stars, before collapsing into black holes. We demonstrate an example, which is specified by a discontinuous increase of the adiabatic index at the hadron-quark phase transition. Such new family may affect the supernova explosions or the gravitational wave emitted from the neutron star mergers.

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T. Tatsumi and H. Sotani
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: 8pages,5figures, Proc.of INPC 2016