On the estimation of stellar parameters with uncertainty prediction from Generative Artificial Neural Networks: application to Gaia RVS simulated spectra [IMA]


Aims. We present an innovative artificial neural network (ANN) architecture, called Generative ANN (GANN), that computes the forward model, that is it learns the function that relates the unknown outputs (stellar atmospheric parameters, in this case) to the given inputs (spectra). Such a model can be integrated in a Bayesian framework to estimate the posterior distribution of the outputs. Methods. The architecture of the GANN follows the same scheme as a normal ANN, but with the inputs and outputs inverted. We train the network with the set of atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe]), obtaining the stellar spectra for such inputs. The residuals between the spectra in the grid and the estimated spectra are minimized using a validation dataset to keep solutions as general as possible. Results. The performance of both conventional ANNs and GANNs to estimate the stellar parameters as a function of the star brightness is presented and compared for different Galactic populations. GANNs provide significantly improved parameterizations for early and intermediate spectral types with rich and intermediate metallicities. The behaviour of both algorithms is very similar for our sample of late-type stars, obtaining residuals in the derivation of [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe] below 0.1dex for stars with Gaia magnitude Grvs<12, which accounts for a number in the order of four million stars to be observed by the Radial Velocity Spectrograph of the Gaia satellite. Conclusions. Uncertainty estimation of computed astrophysical parameters is crucial for the validation of the parameterization itself and for the subsequent exploitation by the astronomical community. GANNs produce not only the parameters for a given spectrum, but a goodness-of-fit between the observed spectrum and the predicted one for a given set of parameters. Moreover, they allow us to obtain the full posterior distribution…

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C. Dafonte, D. Fustes, M. Manteiga, et. al.
Thu, 21 Jul 16

Comments: N/A

Model-Coupled Autoencoder for Time Series Visualisation [IMA]


We present an approach for the visualisation of a set of time series that combines an echo state network with an autoencoder. For each time series in the dataset we train an echo state network, using a common and fixed reservoir of hidden neurons, and use the optimised readout weights as the new representation. Dimensionality reduction is then performed via an autoencoder on the readout weight representations. The crux of the work is to equip the autoencoder with a loss function that correctly interprets the reconstructed readout weights by associating them with a reconstruction error measured in the data space of sequences. This essentially amounts to measuring the predictive performance that the reconstructed readout weights exhibit on their corresponding sequences when plugged back into the echo state network with the same fixed reservoir. We demonstrate that the proposed visualisation framework can deal both with real valued sequences as well as binary sequences. We derive magnification factors in order to analyse distance preservations and distortions in the visualisation space. The versatility and advantages of the proposed method are demonstrated on datasets of time series that originate from diverse domains.

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N. Gianniotis, S. Kugler, P. Tino, et. al.
Fri, 22 Jan 16

Comments: N/A

A review of learning vector quantization classifiers [CL]


In this work we present a review of the state of the art of Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) classifiers. A taxonomy is proposed which integrates the most relevant LVQ approaches to date. The main concepts associated with modern LVQ approaches are defined. A comparison is made among eleven LVQ classifiers using one real-world and two artificial datasets.

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D. Nova and P. Estevez
Thu, 24 Sep 15

Comments: 14 pages

Autoencoding Time Series for Visualisation [IMA]


We present an algorithm for the visualisation of time series. To that end we employ echo state networks to convert time series into a suitable vector representation which is capable of capturing the latent dynamics of the time series. Subsequently, the obtained vector representations are put through an autoencoder and the visualisation is constructed using the activations of the bottleneck. The crux of the work lies with defining an objective function that quantifies the reconstruction error of these representations in a principled manner. We demonstrate the method on synthetic and real data.

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N. Gianniotis, D. Kugler, P. Tino, et. al.
Wed, 6 May 15

Comments: Published in ESANN 2015

Rotation-invariant convolutional neural networks for galaxy morphology prediction [IMA]


Measuring the morphological parameters of galaxies is a key requirement for studying their formation and evolution. Surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) have resulted in the availability of very large collections of images, which have permitted population-wide analyses of galaxy morphology. Morphological analysis has traditionally been carried out mostly via visual inspection by trained experts, which is time-consuming and does not scale to large ($\gtrsim10^4$) numbers of images.
Although attempts have been made to build automated classification systems, these have not been able to achieve the desired level of accuracy. The Galaxy Zoo project successfully applied a crowdsourcing strategy, inviting online users to classify images by answering a series of questions. Unfortunately, even this approach does not scale well enough to keep up with the increasing availability of galaxy images.
We present a deep neural network model for galaxy morphology classification which exploits translational and rotational symmetry. It was developed in the context of the Galaxy Challenge, an international competition to build the best model for morphology classification based on annotated images from the Galaxy Zoo project.
For images with high agreement among the Galaxy Zoo participants, our model is able to reproduce their consensus with near-perfect accuracy ($> 99\%$) for most questions. Confident model predictions are highly accurate, which makes the model suitable for filtering large collections of images and forwarding challenging images to experts for manual annotation. This approach greatly reduces the experts’ workload without affecting accuracy. The application of these algorithms to larger sets of training data will be critical for analysing results from future surveys such as the LSST.

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S. Dieleman, K. Willett and J. Dambre
Wed, 25 Mar 15

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS. 20 pages, 14 figures

Spectral classification using convolutional neural networks [CL]


There is a great need for accurate and autonomous spectral classification methods in astrophysics. This thesis is about training a convolutional neural network (ConvNet) to recognize an object class (quasar, star or galaxy) from one-dimension spectra only. Author developed several scripts and C programs for datasets preparation, preprocessing and postprocessing of the data. EBLearn library (developed by Pierre Sermanet and Yann LeCun) was used to create ConvNets. Application on dataset of more than 60000 spectra yielded success rate of nearly 95%. This thesis conclusively proved great potential of convolutional neural networks and deep learning methods in astrophysics.

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P. Hala
Tue, 30 Dec 14

Comments: 71 pages, 50 figures, Master’s thesis, Masaryk University