Generative Adversarial Networks recover features in astrophysical images of galaxies beyond the deconvolution limit [IMA]

Observations of astrophysical objects such as galaxies are limited by various sources of random and systematic noise from the sky background, the optical system of the telescope and the detector used to record the data. Conventional deconvolution techniques are limited in their ability to recover features in imaging data by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. Here we train a generative adversarial network (GAN) on a sample of $4,550$ images of nearby galaxies at $0.01<z<0.02$ from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and conduct $10\times$ cross validation to evaluate the results. We present a method using a GAN trained on galaxy images that can recover features from artificially degraded images with worse seeing and higher noise than the original with a performance which far exceeds simple deconvolution. The ability to better recover detailed features such as galaxy morphology from low-signal-to-noise and low angular resolution imaging data significantly increases our ability to study existing data sets of astrophysical objects as well as future observations with observatories such as the Large Synoptic Sky Telescope (LSST) and the Hubble and James Webb space telescopes.

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K. Schawinski, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, et. al.
Fri, 3 Feb 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS, for the full code and a virtual machine set up to run it, see this http URL


FPGA Architecture for Deep Learning and its application to Planetary Robotics [CL]

Autonomous control systems onboard planetary rovers and spacecraft benefit from having cognitive capabilities like learning so that they can adapt to unexpected situations in-situ. Q-learning is a form of reinforcement learning and it has been efficient in solving certain class of learning problems. However, embedded systems onboard planetary rovers and spacecraft rarely implement learning algorithms due to the constraints faced in the field, like processing power, chip size, convergence rate and costs due to the need for radiation hardening. These challenges present a compelling need for a portable, low-power, area efficient hardware accelerator to make learning algorithms practical onboard space hardware. This paper presents a FPGA implementation of Q-learning with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). This method matches the massive parallelism inherent in neural network software with the fine-grain parallelism of an FPGA hardware thereby dramatically reducing processing time. Mars Science Laboratory currently uses Xilinx-Space-grade Virtex FPGA devices for image processing, pyrotechnic operation control and obstacle avoidance. We simulate and program our architecture on a Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA. The architectural implementation for a single neuron Q-learning and a more complex Multilayer Perception (MLP) Q-learning accelerator has been demonstrated. The results show up to a 43-fold speed up by Virtex 7 FPGAs compared to a conventional Intel i5 2.3 GHz CPU. Finally, we simulate the proposed architecture using the Symphony simulator and compiler from Xilinx, and evaluate the performance and power consumption.

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P. Gankidi and J. Thangavelautham
Fri, 27 Jan 17

Comments: 8 pages, 10 figures in Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference 2017

Deep Neural Networks to Enable Real-time Multimessenger Astrophysics [IMA]

We introduce a new methodology for time-domain signal processing, based on deep learning neural networks, which has the potential to revolutionize data analysis in science. To illustrate how this enables real-time multimessenger astrophysics, we designed two deep convolutional neural networks that can analyze time-series data from observatories including advanced LIGO. The first neural network recognizes the presence of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers, and the second one estimates the mass of each black hole, given weak signals hidden in extremely noisy time-series inputs. We highlight the advantages offered by this novel method, which outperforms matched-filtering or conventional machine learning techniques, and propose strategies to extend our implementation for simultaneously targeting different classes of gravitational wave sources while ignoring anomalous noise transients. Our results strongly indicate that deep neural networks are highly efficient and versatile tools for directly processing raw noisy data streams. Furthermore, we pioneer a new paradigm to accelerate scientific discovery by combining high-performance simulations on traditional supercomputers and artificial intelligence algorithms that exploit innovative hardware architectures such as deep-learning-optimized GPUs. This unique approach immediately provides a natural framework to unify multi-spectrum observations in real-time, thus enabling coincident detection campaigns of gravitational waves sources and their electromagnetic counterparts.

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D. George and E. Huerta
Tue, 3 Jan 17

Comments: 20 pages, 15 figures

Correlated signal inference by free energy exploration [CL]

The inference of correlated signal fields with unknown correlation structures is of high scientific and technological relevance, but poses significant conceptual and numerical challenges. To address these, we develop the correlated signal inference (CSI) algorithm within information field theory (IFT) and discuss its numerical implementation. To this end, we introduce the free energy exploration (FrEE) strategy for numerical information field theory (NIFTy) applications. The FrEE strategy is to let the mathematical structure of the inference problem determine the dynamics of the numerical solver. FrEE uses the Gibbs free energy formalism for all involved unknown fields and correlation structures without marginalization of nuisance quantities. It thereby avoids the complexity marginalization often impose to IFT equations. FrEE simultaneously solves for the mean and the uncertainties of signal, nuisance, and auxiliary fields, while exploiting any analytically calculable quantity. Finally, FrEE uses a problem specific and self-tuning exploration strategy to swiftly identify the optimal field estimates as well as their uncertainty maps. For all estimated fields, properly weighted posterior samples drawn from their exact, fully non-Gaussian distributions can be generated. Here, we develop the FrEE strategies for the CSI of a normal, a log-normal, and a Poisson log-normal IFT signal inference problem and demonstrate their performances via their NIFTy implementations.

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T. Ensslin and J. Knollmuller
Wed, 28 Dec 16

Comments: 19 pages, 5 figures, submitted

Learning an Astronomical Catalog of the Visible Universe through Scalable Bayesian Inference [CL]

Celeste is a procedure for inferring astronomical catalogs that attains state-of-the-art scientific results. To date, Celeste has been scaled to at most hundreds of megabytes of astronomical images: Bayesian posterior inference is notoriously demanding computationally. In this paper, we report on a scalable, parallel version of Celeste, suitable for learning catalogs from modern large-scale astronomical datasets. Our algorithmic innovations include a fast numerical optimization routine for Bayesian posterior inference and a statistically efficient scheme for decomposing astronomical optimization problems into subproblems.
Our scalable implementation is written entirely in Julia, a new high-level dynamic programming language designed for scientific and numerical computing. We use Julia’s high-level constructs for shared and distributed memory parallelism, and demonstrate effective load balancing and efficient scaling on up to 8192 Xeon cores on the NERSC Cori supercomputer.

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J. Regier, K. Pamnany, R. Giordano, et. al.
Fri, 11 Nov 16

Comments: submitting to IPDPS’17

Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for Supernovae Classification [IMA]

We apply deep recurrent neural networks, which are capable of learning complex sequential information, to classify supernovae. The observational time and filter fluxes are used as inputs to the network, but since the inputs are agnostic additional data such as host galaxy information can also be included. Using the Supernovae Photometric Classification Challenge (SPCC) data, we find that deep networks are capable of learning about light curves, however the performance of the network is highly sensitive to the amount of training data. For a training size of 50% of the representational SPCC dataset (around 104 supernovae) we obtain a type Ia vs non type Ia classification accuracy of 94.8%, an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve AUC of 0.986 and a SPCC figure-of-merit F1 = 0.64. We also apply a pre-trained model to obtain classification probabilities as a function of time, and show it can give early indications of supernovae type. Our method is competitive with existing algorithms and has applications for future large-scale photometric surveys.

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T. Charnock and A. Moss
Mon, 27 Jun 16

Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures

A Deep-Learning Approach for Operation of an Automated Realtime Flare Forecast [SSA]

Automated forecasts serve important role in space weather science, by providing statistical insights to flare-trigger mechanisms, and by enabling tailor-made forecasts and high-frequency forecasts. Only by realtime forecast we can experimentally measure the performance of flare-forecasting methods while confidently avoiding overlearning.
We have been operating unmanned flare forecast service since August, 2015 that provides 24-hour-ahead forecast of solar flares, every 12 minutes. We report the method and prediction results of the system.

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Y. Hada-Muranushi, T. Muranushi, A. Asai, et. al.
Tue, 7 Jun 16

Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures

Practical Introduction to Clustering Data [CL]

Data clustering is an approach to seek for structure in sets of complex data, i.e., sets of “objects”. The main objective is to identify groups of objects which are similar to each other, e.g., for classification. Here, an introduction to clustering is given and three basic approaches are introduced: the k-means algorithm, neighbour-based clustering, and an agglomerative clustering method. For all cases, C source code examples are given, allowing for an easy implementation.

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A. Hartmann
Wed, 17 Feb 16

Comments: 22 pages. All source code in anc directory included. Section 8.5.6 of book: A.K. Hartmann, Big Practical Guide to Computer Simulations, World-Scientifc, Singapore (2015)

Generation of a Supervised Classification Algorithm for Time-Series Variable Stars with an Application to the LINEAR Dataset [IMA]

With the advent of digital astronomy, new benefits and new problems have been presented to the modern day astronomer. While data can be captured in a more efficient and accurate manor using digital means, the efficiency of data retrieval has led to an overload of scientific data for processing and storage. This paper will focus on the construction and application of a supervised pattern classification algorithm for the identification of variable stars. Given the reduction of a survey of stars into a standard feature space, the problem of using prior patterns to identify new observed patterns can be reduced to time tested classification methodologies and algorithms. Such supervised methods, so called because the user trains the algorithms prior to application using patterns with known classes or labels, provide a means to probabilistically determine the estimated class type of new observations. This paper will demonstrate the construction and application of a supervised classification algorithm on variable star data. The classifier is applied to a set of 192,744 LINEAR data points. Of the original samples, 34,451 unique stars were classified with high confidence (high level of probability of being the true class).

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K. Johnston and H. Oluseyi
Mon, 18 Jan 16

Comments: N/A

Computational Intelligence Challenges and Applications on Large-Scale Astronomical Time Series Databases [IMA]

Time-domain astronomy (TDA) is facing a paradigm shift caused by the exponential growth of the sample size, data complexity and data generation rates of new astronomical sky surveys. For example, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will begin operations in northern Chile in 2022, will generate a nearly 150 Petabyte imaging dataset of the southern hemisphere sky. The LSST will stream data at rates of 2 Terabytes per hour, effectively capturing an unprecedented movie of the sky. The LSST is expected not only to improve our understanding of time-varying astrophysical objects, but also to reveal a plethora of yet unknown faint and fast-varying phenomena. To cope with a change of paradigm to data-driven astronomy, the fields of astroinformatics and astrostatistics have been created recently. The new data-oriented paradigms for astronomy combine statistics, data mining, knowledge discovery, machine learning and computational intelligence, in order to provide the automated and robust methods needed for the rapid detection and classification of known astrophysical objects as well as the unsupervised characterization of novel phenomena. In this article we present an overview of machine learning and computational intelligence applications to TDA. Future big data challenges and new lines of research in TDA, focusing on the LSST, are identified and discussed from the viewpoint of computational intelligence/machine learning. Interdisciplinary collaboration will be required to cope with the challenges posed by the deluge of astronomical data coming from the LSST.

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P. Huijse, P. Estevez, P. Protopapas, et. al.
Mon, 28 Sep 15

Comments: N/A

A review of learning vector quantization classifiers [CL]

In this work we present a review of the state of the art of Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) classifiers. A taxonomy is proposed which integrates the most relevant LVQ approaches to date. The main concepts associated with modern LVQ approaches are defined. A comparison is made among eleven LVQ classifiers using one real-world and two artificial datasets.

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D. Nova and P. Estevez
Thu, 24 Sep 15

Comments: 14 pages

Sensitivity study using machine learning algorithms on simulated r-mode gravitational wave signals from newborn neutron stars [IMA]

This is a follow-up sensitivity study on r-mode gravitational wave signals from newborn neutron stars illustrating the applicability of machine learning algorithms for the detection of long-lived gravitational-wave transients. In this sensitivity study we examine three machine learning algorithms (MLAs): artificial neural networks (ANNs), support vector machines (SVMs) and constrained subspace classifiers (CSCs). The objective of this study is to compare the detection efficiency that MLAs can achieve with the efficiency of conventional detection algorithms discussed in an earlier paper. Comparisons are made using 2 distinct r-mode waveforms. For the training of the MLAs we assumed that some information about the distance to the source is given so that the training was performed over distance ranges not wider than half an order of magnitude. The results of this study suggest that machine learning algorithms are suitable for the detection of long-lived gravitational-wave transients and that when assuming knowledge of the distance to the source, MLAs are at least as efficient as conventional methods.

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A. Mytidis, A. Panagopoulos, O. Panagopoulos, et. al.
Tue, 11 Aug 15

Comments: N/A

Removing systematic errors for exoplanet search via latent causes [CL]

We describe a method for removing the effect of confounders in order to reconstruct a latent quantity of interest. The method, referred to as half-sibling regression, is inspired by recent work in causal inference using additive noise models. We provide a theoretical justification and illustrate the potential of the method in a challenging astronomy application.

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B. Scholkopf, D. Hogg, D. Wang, et. al.
Wed, 13 May 15

Comments: Extended version of a paper appearing in the Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Machine Learning, Lille, France, 2015

ASTROMLSKIT: A New Statistical Machine Learning Toolkit: A Platform for Data Analytics in Astronomy [CL]

Astroinformatics is a new impact area in the world of astronomy, occasionally called the final frontier, where several astrophysicists, statisticians and computer scientists work together to tackle various data intensive astronomical problems. Exponential growth in the data volume and increased complexity of the data augments difficult questions to the existing challenges. Classical problems in Astronomy are compounded by accumulation of astronomical volume of complex data, rendering the task of classification and interpretation incredibly laborious. The presence of noise in the data makes analysis and interpretation even more arduous. Machine learning algorithms and data analytic techniques provide the right platform for the challenges posed by these problems. A diverse range of open problem like star-galaxy separation, detection and classification of exoplanets, classification of supernovae is discussed. The focus of the paper is the applicability and efficacy of various machine learning algorithms like K Nearest Neighbor (KNN), random forest (RF), decision tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Na\”ive Bayes and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in analysis and inference of the decision theoretic problems in Astronomy. The machine learning algorithms, integrated into ASTROMLSKIT, a toolkit developed in the course of the work, have been used to analyze HabCat data and supernovae data. Accuracy has been found to be appreciably good.

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S. Saha, S. Agrawal, M. R, et. al.
Thu, 30 Apr 15

Comments: Habitability Catalog (HabCat), Supernova classification, data analysis, Astroinformatics, Machine learning, ASTROMLS toolkit, Na\”ive Bayes, SVD, PCA, Random Forest, SVM, Decision Tree, LDA

Meta learning of bounds on the Bayes classifier error [CL]

Meta learning uses information from base learners (e.g. classifiers or estimators) as well as information about the learning problem to improve upon the performance of a single base learner. For example, the Bayes error rate of a given feature space, if known, can be used to aid in choosing a classifier, as well as in feature selection and model selection for the base classifiers and the meta classifier. Recent work in the field of f-divergence functional estimation has led to the development of simple and rapidly converging estimators that can be used to estimate various bounds on the Bayes error. We estimate multiple bounds on the Bayes error using an estimator that applies meta learning to slowly converging plug-in estimators to obtain the parametric convergence rate. We compare the estimated bounds empirically on simulated data and then estimate the tighter bounds on features extracted from an image patch analysis of sunspot continuum and magnetogram images.

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K. Moon, V. Delouille and A. Hero
Tue, 28 Apr 15

Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures

Rotation-invariant convolutional neural networks for galaxy morphology prediction [IMA]

Measuring the morphological parameters of galaxies is a key requirement for studying their formation and evolution. Surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) have resulted in the availability of very large collections of images, which have permitted population-wide analyses of galaxy morphology. Morphological analysis has traditionally been carried out mostly via visual inspection by trained experts, which is time-consuming and does not scale to large ($\gtrsim10^4$) numbers of images.
Although attempts have been made to build automated classification systems, these have not been able to achieve the desired level of accuracy. The Galaxy Zoo project successfully applied a crowdsourcing strategy, inviting online users to classify images by answering a series of questions. Unfortunately, even this approach does not scale well enough to keep up with the increasing availability of galaxy images.
We present a deep neural network model for galaxy morphology classification which exploits translational and rotational symmetry. It was developed in the context of the Galaxy Challenge, an international competition to build the best model for morphology classification based on annotated images from the Galaxy Zoo project.
For images with high agreement among the Galaxy Zoo participants, our model is able to reproduce their consensus with near-perfect accuracy ($> 99\%$) for most questions. Confident model predictions are highly accurate, which makes the model suitable for filtering large collections of images and forwarding challenging images to experts for manual annotation. This approach greatly reduces the experts’ workload without affecting accuracy. The application of these algorithms to larger sets of training data will be critical for analysing results from future surveys such as the LSST.

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S. Dieleman, K. Willett and J. Dambre
Wed, 25 Mar 15

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS. 20 pages, 14 figures

Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images [IMA]

The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

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E. Kuminski, J. George, J. Wallin, et. al.
Tue, 30 Sep 14

Comments: PASP, accepted

Hellinger Distance Trees for Imbalanced Streams [CL]

Classifiers trained on data sets possessing an imbalanced class distribution are known to exhibit poor generalisation performance. This is known as the imbalanced learning problem. The problem becomes particularly acute when we consider incremental classifiers operating on imbalanced data streams, especially when the learning objective is rare class identification. As accuracy may provide a misleading impression of performance on imbalanced data, existing stream classifiers based on accuracy can suffer poor minority class performance on imbalanced streams, with the result being low minority class recall rates. In this paper we address this deficiency by proposing the use of the Hellinger distance measure, as a very fast decision tree split criterion. We demonstrate that by using Hellinger a statistically significant improvement in recall rates on imbalanced data streams can be achieved, with an acceptable increase in the false positive rate.

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R. Lyon, J. Brooke, J. Knowles, et. al.
Mon, 12 May 14

Comments: 6 Pages, 2 figures, to be published in Proceedings 22nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) 2014

Supervised detection of anomalous light-curves in massive astronomical catalogs [CL]

The development of synoptic sky surveys has led to a massive amount of data for which resources needed for analysis are beyond human capabilities. To process this information and to extract all possible knowledge, machine learning techniques become necessary. Here we present a new method to automatically discover unknown variable objects in large astronomical catalogs. With the aim of taking full advantage of all the information we have about known objects, our method is based on a supervised algorithm. In particular, we train a random forest classifier using known variability classes of objects and obtain votes for each of the objects in the training set. We then model this voting distribution with a Bayesian network and obtain the joint voting distribution among the training objects. Consequently, an unknown object is considered as an outlier insofar it has a low joint probability. Our method is suitable for exploring massive datasets given that the training process is performed offline. We tested our algorithm on 20 millions light-curves from the MACHO catalog and generated a list of anomalous candidates. We divided the candidates into two main classes of outliers: artifacts and intrinsic outliers. Artifacts were principally due to air mass variation, seasonal variation, bad calibration or instrumental errors and were consequently removed from our outlier list and added to the training set. After retraining, we selected about 4000 objects, which we passed to a post analysis stage by perfoming a cross-match with all publicly available catalogs. Within these candidates we identified certain known but rare objects such as eclipsing Cepheids, blue variables, cataclysmic variables and X-ray sources. For some outliers there were no additional information. Among them we identified three unknown variability types and few individual outliers that will be followed up for a deeper analysis.

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I. nun, K. Pichara, P. Protopapas, et. al.
Tue, 22 Apr 14

SOMz: photometric redshift PDFs with self organizing maps and random atlas [IMA]

In this paper we explore the applicability of the unsupervised machine learning technique of Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to estimate galaxy photometric redshift probability density functions (PDFs). This technique takes a spectroscopic training set, and maps the photometric attributes, but not the redshifts, to a two dimensional surface by using a process of competitive learning where neurons compete to more closely resemble the training data multidimensional space. The key feature of a SOM is that it retains the topology of the input set, revealing correlations between the attributes that are not easily identified. We test three different 2D topological mapping: rectangular, hexagonal, and spherical, by using data from the DEEP2 survey. We also explore different implementations and boundary conditions on the map and also introduce the idea of a random atlas where a large number of different maps are created and their individual predictions are aggregated to produce a more robust photometric redshift PDF. We also introduced a new metric, the $I$-score, which efficiently incorporates different metrics, making it easier to compare different results (from different parameters or different photometric redshift codes). We find that by using a spherical topology mapping we obtain a better representation of the underlying multidimensional topology, which provides more accurate results that are comparable to other, state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Our results illustrate that unsupervised approaches have great potential for many astronomical problems, and in particular for the computation of photometric redshifts.

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Mon, 23 Dec 13

Automatic Classification of Variable Stars in Catalogs with missing data [IMA]

We present an automatic classification method for astronomical catalogs with missing data. We use Bayesian networks, a probabilistic graphical model, that allows us to perform inference to pre- dict missing values given observed data and dependency relationships between variables. To learn a Bayesian network from incomplete data, we use an iterative algorithm that utilises sampling methods and expectation maximization to estimate the distributions and probabilistic dependencies of variables from data with missing values. To test our model we use three catalogs with missing data (SAGE, 2MASS and UBVI) and one complete catalog (MACHO). We examine how classification accuracy changes when information from missing data catalogs is included, how our method compares to traditional missing data approaches and at what computational cost. Integrating these catalogs with missing data we find that classification of variable objects improves by few percent and by 15% for quasar detection while keeping the computational cost the same.

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Date added: Wed, 30 Oct 13