Generative Adversarial Networks recover features in astrophysical images of galaxies beyond the deconvolution limit [IMA]

Observations of astrophysical objects such as galaxies are limited by various sources of random and systematic noise from the sky background, the optical system of the telescope and the detector used to record the data. Conventional deconvolution techniques are limited in their ability to recover features in imaging data by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. Here we train a generative adversarial network (GAN) on a sample of $4,550$ images of nearby galaxies at $0.01<z<0.02$ from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and conduct $10\times$ cross validation to evaluate the results. We present a method using a GAN trained on galaxy images that can recover features from artificially degraded images with worse seeing and higher noise than the original with a performance which far exceeds simple deconvolution. The ability to better recover detailed features such as galaxy morphology from low-signal-to-noise and low angular resolution imaging data significantly increases our ability to study existing data sets of astrophysical objects as well as future observations with observatories such as the Large Synoptic Sky Telescope (LSST) and the Hubble and James Webb space telescopes.

Read this paper on arXiv…

K. Schawinski, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, et. al.
Fri, 3 Feb 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS, for the full code and a virtual machine set up to run it, see this http URL

FPGA Architecture for Deep Learning and its application to Planetary Robotics [CL]

Autonomous control systems onboard planetary rovers and spacecraft benefit from having cognitive capabilities like learning so that they can adapt to unexpected situations in-situ. Q-learning is a form of reinforcement learning and it has been efficient in solving certain class of learning problems. However, embedded systems onboard planetary rovers and spacecraft rarely implement learning algorithms due to the constraints faced in the field, like processing power, chip size, convergence rate and costs due to the need for radiation hardening. These challenges present a compelling need for a portable, low-power, area efficient hardware accelerator to make learning algorithms practical onboard space hardware. This paper presents a FPGA implementation of Q-learning with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). This method matches the massive parallelism inherent in neural network software with the fine-grain parallelism of an FPGA hardware thereby dramatically reducing processing time. Mars Science Laboratory currently uses Xilinx-Space-grade Virtex FPGA devices for image processing, pyrotechnic operation control and obstacle avoidance. We simulate and program our architecture on a Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA. The architectural implementation for a single neuron Q-learning and a more complex Multilayer Perception (MLP) Q-learning accelerator has been demonstrated. The results show up to a 43-fold speed up by Virtex 7 FPGAs compared to a conventional Intel i5 2.3 GHz CPU. Finally, we simulate the proposed architecture using the Symphony simulator and compiler from Xilinx, and evaluate the performance and power consumption.

Read this paper on arXiv…

P. Gankidi and J. Thangavelautham
Fri, 27 Jan 17

Comments: 8 pages, 10 figures in Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference 2017

Deep Neural Networks to Enable Real-time Multimessenger Astrophysics [IMA]

We introduce a new methodology for time-domain signal processing, based on deep learning neural networks, which has the potential to revolutionize data analysis in science. To illustrate how this enables real-time multimessenger astrophysics, we designed two deep convolutional neural networks that can analyze time-series data from observatories including advanced LIGO. The first neural network recognizes the presence of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers, and the second one estimates the mass of each black hole, given weak signals hidden in extremely noisy time-series inputs. We highlight the advantages offered by this novel method, which outperforms matched-filtering or conventional machine learning techniques, and propose strategies to extend our implementation for simultaneously targeting different classes of gravitational wave sources while ignoring anomalous noise transients. Our results strongly indicate that deep neural networks are highly efficient and versatile tools for directly processing raw noisy data streams. Furthermore, we pioneer a new paradigm to accelerate scientific discovery by combining high-performance simulations on traditional supercomputers and artificial intelligence algorithms that exploit innovative hardware architectures such as deep-learning-optimized GPUs. This unique approach immediately provides a natural framework to unify multi-spectrum observations in real-time, thus enabling coincident detection campaigns of gravitational waves sources and their electromagnetic counterparts.

Read this paper on arXiv…

D. George and E. Huerta
Tue, 3 Jan 17

Comments: 20 pages, 15 figures

Correlated signal inference by free energy exploration [CL]

The inference of correlated signal fields with unknown correlation structures is of high scientific and technological relevance, but poses significant conceptual and numerical challenges. To address these, we develop the correlated signal inference (CSI) algorithm within information field theory (IFT) and discuss its numerical implementation. To this end, we introduce the free energy exploration (FrEE) strategy for numerical information field theory (NIFTy) applications. The FrEE strategy is to let the mathematical structure of the inference problem determine the dynamics of the numerical solver. FrEE uses the Gibbs free energy formalism for all involved unknown fields and correlation structures without marginalization of nuisance quantities. It thereby avoids the complexity marginalization often impose to IFT equations. FrEE simultaneously solves for the mean and the uncertainties of signal, nuisance, and auxiliary fields, while exploiting any analytically calculable quantity. Finally, FrEE uses a problem specific and self-tuning exploration strategy to swiftly identify the optimal field estimates as well as their uncertainty maps. For all estimated fields, properly weighted posterior samples drawn from their exact, fully non-Gaussian distributions can be generated. Here, we develop the FrEE strategies for the CSI of a normal, a log-normal, and a Poisson log-normal IFT signal inference problem and demonstrate their performances via their NIFTy implementations.

Read this paper on arXiv…

T. Ensslin and J. Knollmuller
Wed, 28 Dec 16

Comments: 19 pages, 5 figures, submitted

Learning an Astronomical Catalog of the Visible Universe through Scalable Bayesian Inference [CL]

Celeste is a procedure for inferring astronomical catalogs that attains state-of-the-art scientific results. To date, Celeste has been scaled to at most hundreds of megabytes of astronomical images: Bayesian posterior inference is notoriously demanding computationally. In this paper, we report on a scalable, parallel version of Celeste, suitable for learning catalogs from modern large-scale astronomical datasets. Our algorithmic innovations include a fast numerical optimization routine for Bayesian posterior inference and a statistically efficient scheme for decomposing astronomical optimization problems into subproblems.
Our scalable implementation is written entirely in Julia, a new high-level dynamic programming language designed for scientific and numerical computing. We use Julia’s high-level constructs for shared and distributed memory parallelism, and demonstrate effective load balancing and efficient scaling on up to 8192 Xeon cores on the NERSC Cori supercomputer.

Read this paper on arXiv…

J. Regier, K. Pamnany, R. Giordano, et. al.
Fri, 11 Nov 16

Comments: submitting to IPDPS’17

Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for Supernovae Classification [IMA]

We apply deep recurrent neural networks, which are capable of learning complex sequential information, to classify supernovae. The observational time and filter fluxes are used as inputs to the network, but since the inputs are agnostic additional data such as host galaxy information can also be included. Using the Supernovae Photometric Classification Challenge (SPCC) data, we find that deep networks are capable of learning about light curves, however the performance of the network is highly sensitive to the amount of training data. For a training size of 50% of the representational SPCC dataset (around 104 supernovae) we obtain a type Ia vs non type Ia classification accuracy of 94.8%, an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve AUC of 0.986 and a SPCC figure-of-merit F1 = 0.64. We also apply a pre-trained model to obtain classification probabilities as a function of time, and show it can give early indications of supernovae type. Our method is competitive with existing algorithms and has applications for future large-scale photometric surveys.

Read this paper on arXiv…

T. Charnock and A. Moss
Mon, 27 Jun 16

Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures

A Deep-Learning Approach for Operation of an Automated Realtime Flare Forecast [SSA]

Automated forecasts serve important role in space weather science, by providing statistical insights to flare-trigger mechanisms, and by enabling tailor-made forecasts and high-frequency forecasts. Only by realtime forecast we can experimentally measure the performance of flare-forecasting methods while confidently avoiding overlearning.
We have been operating unmanned flare forecast service since August, 2015 that provides 24-hour-ahead forecast of solar flares, every 12 minutes. We report the method and prediction results of the system.

Read this paper on arXiv…

Y. Hada-Muranushi, T. Muranushi, A. Asai, et. al.
Tue, 7 Jun 16

Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures