Second-Generation Curvelets on the Sphere [CL]

Curvelets are efficient to represent highly anisotropic signal content, such as local linear and curvilinear structure. First-generation curvelets on the sphere, however, suffered from blocking artefacts. We present a new second- generation curvelet transform, where scale-discretised curvelets are constructed directly on the sphere. Scale-discretised curvelets exhibit a parabolic scaling relation, are well-localised in both spatial and harmonic domains, support the exact analysis and synthesis of both scalar and spin signals, and are free of blocking artefacts. We present fast algorithms to compute the exact curvelet transform, reducing computational complexity from $\mathcal{O}(L^5)$ to $\mathcal{O}(L^3\log_{2}{L})$ for signals band-limited at $L$. The implementation of these algorithms is made publicly available. Finally, we present an illustrative application demonstrating the effectiveness of curvelets for representing directional curve-like features in natural spherical images.

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J. Chan, B. Leistedt, T. Kitching, et. al.
Thu, 19 Nov 15

Comments: 10 pages, 7 figures, Code available at this http URL

Directional spin wavelets on the sphere [CL]

We construct a directional spin wavelet framework on the sphere by generalising the scalar scale-discretised wavelet transform to signals of arbitrary spin. The resulting framework is the only wavelet framework defined natively on the sphere that is able to probe the directional intensity of spin signals. Furthermore, directional spin scale-discretised wavelets support the exact synthesis of a signal on the sphere from its wavelet coefficients and satisfy excellent localisation and uncorrelation properties. Consequently, directional spin scale-discretised wavelets are likely to be of use in a wide range of applications and in particular for the analysis of the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We develop new algorithms to compute (scalar and spin) forward and inverse wavelet transforms exactly and efficiently for very large data-sets containing tens of millions of samples on the sphere. By leveraging a novel sampling theorem on the rotation group developed in a companion article, only half as many wavelet coefficients as alternative approaches need be computed, while still capturing the full information content of the signal under analysis. Our implementation of these algorithms is made publicly available.

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J. McEwen, B. Leistedt, M. Buttner, et. al.
Thu, 24 Sep 15

Comments: 11 pages, 7 figures. Code available on

3D weak lensing with spin wavelets on the ball [CEA]

We construct the spin flaglet transform, a wavelet transform to analyse spin signals in three dimensions. Spin flaglets can probe signal content localised simultaneously in space and frequency and, moreover, are separable so that their angular and radial properties can be controlled independently. They are particularly suited to analysing of cosmological observations such as the weak gravitational lensing of galaxies. Such observations have a unique 3D geometrical setting since they are natively made on the sky, have spin angular symmetries, and are extended in the radial direction by additional distance or redshift information. Flaglets are constructed in the harmonic space defined by the Fourier-Laguerre transform, previously defined for scalar functions and extended here to signals with spin symmetries. Thanks to various sampling theorems, both the Fourier-Laguerre and flaglet transforms are theoretically exact when applied to band-limited signals. In other words, in numerical computations the only loss of information is due to the finite representation of floating point numbers. We develop a 3D framework relating the weak lensing power spectrum to covariances of flaglet coefficients. We suggest that the resulting novel flaglet weak lensing estimator offers a powerful alternative to common 2D and 3D approaches to accurately capture cosmological information. While standard weak lensing analyses focus on either real or harmonic space representations (i.e., correlation functions or Fourier-Bessel power spectra, respectively), a wavelet approach inherits the advantages of both techniques, where both complicated sky coverage and uncertainties associated with the physical modelling of small scales can be handled effectively. Our codes to compute the Fourier-Laguerre and flaglet transforms are made publicly available.

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B. Leistedt, J. McEwen, T. Kitching, et. al.
Thu, 24 Sep 15

Comments: 24 pages, 4 figures

Localisation of directional scale-discretised wavelets on the sphere [CL]

Scale-discretised wavelets yield a directional wavelet framework on the sphere where a signal can be probed not only in scale and position but also in orientation. Furthermore, a signal can be synthesised from its wavelet coefficients exactly, in theory and practice (to machine precision). Scale-discretised wavelets are closely related to spherical needlets (both were developed independently at about the same time) but relax the axisymmetric property of needlets so that directional signal content can be probed. Needlets have been shown to satisfy important quasi-exponential localisation and asymptotic uncorrelation properties. We show that these properties also hold for directional scale-discretised wavelets on the sphere and derive similar localisation and uncorrelation bounds in both the scalar and spin settings. Scale-discretised wavelets can thus be considered as directional needlets.

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J. McEwen, C. Durastanti and Y. Wiaux
Thu, 24 Sep 15

Comments: 29 pages, 8 figures

A novel sampling theorem on the rotation group [CL]

We develop a novel sampling theorem for functions defined on the three-dimensional rotation group SO(3) by associating the rotation group with the three-torus through a periodic extension. Our sampling theorem requires $4L^3$ samples to capture all of the information content of a signal band-limited at $L$, reducing the number of required samples by a factor of two compared to other equiangular sampling theorems. We present fast algorithms to compute the associated Fourier transform on the rotation group, the so-called Wigner transform, which scale as $O(L^4)$, compared to the naive scaling of $O(L^6)$. For the common case of a low directional band-limit $N$, complexity is reduced to $O(N L^3)$. Our fast algorithms will be of direct use in speeding up the computation of directional wavelet transforms on the sphere. We make our SO3 code implementing these algorithms publicly available.

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J. McEwen, M. Buttner, B. Leistedt, et. al.
Fri, 14 Aug 15

Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures

Complementary Lattice Arrays for Coded Aperture Imaging [CL]

In this work, we consider complementary lattice arrays in order to enable a broader range of designs for coded aperture imaging systems. We provide a general framework and methods that generate richer and more flexible designs than existing ones. Besides this, we review and interpret the state-of-the-art uniformly redundant arrays (URA) designs, broaden the related concepts, and further propose some new design methods.

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J. Ding, M. Noshad and V. Tarokh
Tue, 9 Jun 15

Comments: N/A

Meta learning of bounds on the Bayes classifier error [CL]

Meta learning uses information from base learners (e.g. classifiers or estimators) as well as information about the learning problem to improve upon the performance of a single base learner. For example, the Bayes error rate of a given feature space, if known, can be used to aid in choosing a classifier, as well as in feature selection and model selection for the base classifiers and the meta classifier. Recent work in the field of f-divergence functional estimation has led to the development of simple and rapidly converging estimators that can be used to estimate various bounds on the Bayes error. We estimate multiple bounds on the Bayes error using an estimator that applies meta learning to slowly converging plug-in estimators to obtain the parametric convergence rate. We compare the estimated bounds empirically on simulated data and then estimate the tighter bounds on features extracted from an image patch analysis of sunspot continuum and magnetogram images.

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K. Moon, V. Delouille and A. Hero
Tue, 28 Apr 15

Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures