SDSSJ143244.91+301435.3: a link between radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies and compact steep-spectrum radio sources? [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3229


We present SDSSJ143244.91+301435.3, a new case of radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 (RL NLS1) with a relatively high radio power (P1.4GHz=2.1×10^25 W Hz^-1) and large radioloudness parameter (R1.4=600+/-100). The radio source is compact with a linear size below ~1.4 kpc but, contrary to most of the RL NLS1 discovered so far with such a high R1.4, its radio spectrum is very steep (alpha=0.93) and not supporting a ‘blazar-like’ nature. Both the small mass of the central super-massive black-hole and the high accretion rate relative to the Eddington limit estimated for this object (3.2×10^7 Msun and 0.27, respectively, with a formal error of ~0.4 dex on both quantities) are typical of the class of NLS1. Through a modeling of the spectral energy distribution of the source we have found that the galaxy hosting SDSSJ143244.91+301435.3 is undergoing a quite intense star-formation (SFR=50 Msun y^-1) which, however, is expected to contribute only marginally (~1 per cent) to the observed radio emission. The radio properties of SDSSJ143244.91+301435.3 are remarkably similar to those of compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio sources, a class of AGN mostly composed by young radio galaxies. This may suggest a direct link between these two classes of AGN, with the CSS sources possibly representing the misaligned version (the so-called parent population) of RL NLS1 showing blazar characteristics.

Read this paper on arXiv…

A. Caccianiga, S. Anton, L. Ballo, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14
3/46

Ionized gas disks in Elliptical and S0 galaxies at $z<1$ [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3104


We analyse the extended, ionized-gas emission of 24 early-type galaxies (ETGs) at $0<z<1$ from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS). We discuss different possible sources of ionization and favour star-formation as the main cause of the observed emission. Ten galaxies have disturbed gas kinematics, while 14 have rotating gas disks. In addition, 15 galaxies are in the field, while 9 are in the infall regions of clusters. This implies that, if the gas has an internal origin, this is likely stripped as the galaxies get closer to the cluster centre. If the gas instead comes from an external source, then our results suggest that this is more likely acquired outside the cluster environment, where galaxy-galaxy interactions more commonly take place. We analyse the Tully-Fisher relation of the ETGs with gas disks, and compare them to EDisCS spirals. Taking a matched range of redshifts, $M_{B}<-20$, and excluding galaxies with large velocity uncertainties, we find that, at fixed rotational velocity, ETGs are 1.7 mag fainter in $M_{B}$ than spirals. At fixed stellar mass, we also find that ETGs have systematically lower specific star-formation rates than spirals. This study constitutes an important step forward towards the understanding of the evolution of the complex ISM in ETGs by significantly extending the look-back-time baseline explored so far.

Read this paper on arXiv…

Y. Jaffe, A. Aragon-Salamanca, B. Ziegler, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14
6/46

The Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars – High resolution spectral library [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3090


Context. An increasing number of high resolution stellar spectra is available today thanks to many past and ongoing spectroscopic surveys. Consequently, numerous methods have been developed in order to perform an automatic spectral analysis on a massive amount of data. When reviewing published results, biases arise and they need to be addressed and minimized.
Aims. We are providing a homogeneous library with a common set of calibration stars (known as the Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars) that will allow to assess stellar analysis methods and calibrate spectroscopic surveys.
Methods. High resolution and signal-to-noise spectra were compiled from different instruments. We developed an automatic process in order to homogenize the observed data and assess the quality of the resulting library.
Results. We built a high quality library that will facilitate the assessment of spectral analyses and the calibration of present and future spectroscopic surveys. The automation of the process minimizes the human subjectivity and ensures reproducibility. Additionally, it allows us to quickly adapt the library to specific needs that can arise from future spectroscopic analyses.

Read this paper on arXiv…

S. Blanco-Cuaresma, C. Soubiran, P. Jofre, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14
8/46

The pros and cons of the inversion method approach to derive 3D dust emission properties of the ISM: the Hi-GAL field centred on (l,b)=(30$^{\circ}$,0$^{\circ}$) [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3327


Herschel FIR continuum data obtained as part of the Hi-GAL survey have been used, together with the GLIMPSE 8 $\mu$m and MIPSGAL 24 $\mu$m data, to attempt the first 3D-decomposition of dust emission associated with atomic, molecular and ionized gas at 15 arcmin angular resolution. Our initial test case is a 2$\times$2 square degrees region centred on (l,b)=(30$^{\circ}$,0$^{\circ}$), a direction that encompasses the origin point of the Scutum-Crux Arm at the tip of the Galactic Bar. Coupling the IR maps with velocity maps specific for different gas phases (HI 21cm, $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO, and RRLs), we estimate the properties of dust blended with each of the gas components and at different Galactocentric distances along the LOS. A statistical Pearson’s coefficients analysis is used to study the correlation between the column densities and the intensity of the IR emission. This analysis provides evidence that the 2$\times$2 square degree field under consideration is characterized by the presence of a gas component not accounted for by the standard tracers, possibly associated with warm H$_{2}$ and cold HI. We demonstrate that the IR radiation in the range 8 $\mu$m $<$ $\lambda$ $<$ 500 $\mu$m is systematically dominated by emission originating within the Scutum-Crux Arm. By applying an inversion method, we recover the dust emissivities associated with atomic, molecular and ionized gas. Using the DustEM model we obtain an indication for PAHs depletion in the diffuse ionized gas. However, the main goal of this work is to discuss the impact of the missing column density associated with the dark gas component on the accurate evaluation of the dust properties, and to shed light on the limitations of the inversion method approach when this is applied to a small section of the Galactic Plane and when the working resolution allows sufficient de-blending of the gas components along the LOS.

Read this paper on arXiv…

A. Traficante, R. Paladini, M. Compiegne, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14
17/46

Far-infrared surveys of galaxy evolution [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3334


Roughly half of the radiation from evolving galaxies in the early universe reaches us in the far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength range. Recent major advances in observing capabilities, in particular the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory in 2009, have dramatically enhanced our ability to use this information in the context of multiwavelength studies of galaxy evolution. Near its peak, three quarters of the cosmic infrared background is now resolved into individually detected sources. The use of far-infrared diagnostics of dust-obscured star formation and of interstellar medium conditions has expanded from rare extreme high-redshift galaxies to more typical main sequence galaxies and hosts of active galactic nuclei, out to z>~2. These studies shed light on the evolving role of steady equilibrium processes and of brief starbursts, at and since the peak of cosmic star formation and black hole accretion. This review presents a selection of recent far-infrared studies of galaxy evolution, with an emphasis on Herschel results

Read this paper on arXiv…

D. Lutz
Fri, 14 Mar 14
20/46

On the possible correlation of Galactic VHE source locations and enhancements of the surface density in the Galactic plane [HEAP]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3271


The association of very-high energy sources with regions of the sky rich in dust and gas has been noticed in the study of individual VHE sources. However, the statistical significance of such correlation for the whole population of TeV detections has not been assessed yet. Here we present a study of the association of VHE sources in the central Galactic region with positions of enhanced material content. We obtain estimates of the material content through two classical tracers: dust emission and intensity of the $^\textrm{12}$CO(1$\rightarrow$0) line. We make use of the recently released all-sky maps of astrophysical foregrounds of the Planck Collaboration and of the extensive existing CO mapping of the Galactic sky. In order to test the correlation, we construct randomized samples of VHE source positions starting from the inner Galactic plane survey sources detected by the H.E.S.S. array. We find hints of a positive correlation between positions of VHE sources and regions rich in molecular material, which in the best of cases reaches the 3.9sigma level. The latter confidence is however decreased if variations in the selection criteria are considered, what lead us to conclude that a positive correlation cannot be firmly established yet. Forthcoming VHE facilities will be needed in order to firmly establish the correlation.

Read this paper on arXiv…

G. Pedaletti, E. Wilhelmi and D. Torres
Fri, 14 Mar 14
24/46

A compact, metal-rich, kpc-scale outflow in FBQS J0209-0438: Detailed diagnostics from HST/COS extreme UV observations [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3338


We present HST/COS observations of highly ionized absorption lines associated with a radio-loud QSO at $z=1.1319$. The absorption system has multiple velocity components, tracing gas that is largely outflowing from the QSO at velocities of a few 100 km s$^{-1}$. There is an unprecedented range in ionization, with detections of HI, NIII, NIV, NV, OIV, OIV*, OV, OVI, NeVIII, MgX, SV and ArVIII. We estimate the total hydrogen number density from the column density ratio N(OIV*)/N(OIV) to be $\log(n_{\textrm{H}}/\textrm{cm}^3)\sim 3$. Assuming photoionization equilibrium, we derive a distance to the absorbing complex of $2.3<R<6.0$ kpc from the centre of the QSO. A range in ionization parameter, covering $\sim 2$ orders of magnitude, suggest absorption path lengths in the range $10^{-4.5}<l_{\textrm{abs}}<1$ pc. In addition, the absorbing gas only partially covers the background emission from the QSO continuum, which suggests clouds with transverse sizes $l_{\textrm{trans}}<10^{-2.5}$ pc. Widely differing absorption path lengths, combined with covering fractions less than unity across all ions pose a challenge to models involving simple cloud geometries. These issues may be mitigated by the presence of non-equilibrium effects, together with the possibility of multiple gas temperatures. The dynamics and expected lifetimes of the gas clouds suggest that they do not originate from close to the AGN, but are instead formed close to their observed location. Their inferred distance, outflow velocities and gas densities are broadly consistent with scenarios involving gas entrainment or condensations in winds driven by either supernovae, or the supermassive black hole accretion disc. In the case of the latter, the present data most likely does not trace the bulk of the outflow by mass, which could instead manifest itself as an accompanying warm absorber, detectable in X-rays.

Read this paper on arXiv…

C. Finn, S. Morris, N. Crighton, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14
31/46

Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3166


We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z=1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature, and refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with hot dust indicator (beta_NIR) and other quasar physical parameters, such as Eddington ratio, luminosity and UV continuum slope, are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here beta_NIR is the near-infrared continuum slope, a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depends on Eddington ratio, UV slope and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with beta_NIR in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with beta_NIR than Eddington ratio, luminosity and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as beta_NIR increases, while Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that dusty outflow scenario, i.e. dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely. The BAL quasar catalog is available from the authors upon request.

Read this paper on arXiv…

S. Zhang, H. Wang, T. Wang, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14
33/46

Kiloparsec-scale outflows are prevalent among luminous AGN: outflows and feedback in the context of the overall AGN population [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3086


We present integral field unit (IFU) observations covering the [O III]4959,5007 and H-Beta emission lines of sixteen z<0.2 type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our targets are selected from a well-constrained parent sample of 24,000 AGN so that we can place our observations into the context of the overall AGN population. Our targets are radio-quiet with star formation rates (<~[10-100] Msol/yr) that are consistent with normal star-forming galaxies. We decouple the kinematics of galaxy dynamics and mergers from outflows. We find high-velocity ionised gas (velocity widths of 600-1500 km/s and maximum velocities of <=1700 km/s) with observed spatial extents of >~(6-16) kpc in all targets and observe signatures of spherical outflows and bi-polar superbubbles. We show that our targets are representative of z<0.2, luminous (i.e., L([O III]) > 5×10^41 erg/s) type 2 AGN and that ionised outflows are not only common but also in >=70% (3 sigma confidence) of cases, they are extended over kiloparsec scales. Our study demonstrates that galaxy-wide energetic outflows are not confined to the most extreme star-forming galaxies or radio-luminous AGN; however, there may be a higher incidence of the most extreme outflow velocities in quasars hosted in ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. Both star formation and AGN activity appear to be energetically viable to drive the outflows and we find no definitive evidence that favours one process over the other. Although highly uncertain, we derive mass outflow rates (typically ~10x the SFRs), kinetic energies (~0.5-10% of L[AGN]) and momentum rates (typically >~10-20x L[AGN]/c) consistent with theoretical models that predict AGN-driven outflows play a significant role in shaping the evolution of galaxies.

Read this paper on arXiv…

C. Harrison, D. Alexander, J. Mullaney, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14
36/46

Clustering of Local Group distances: publication bias or correlated measurements? I. The Large Magellanic Cloud [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3141


The distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) represents a key local rung of the extragalactic distance ladder. Yet, the galaxy’s distance modulus has long been an issue of contention, in particular in view of claims that most newly determined distance moduli cluster tightly – and with a small spread – around the “canonical” distance modulus, (m-M)_0 = 18.50 mag. We compiled 233 separate LMC distance determinations published between 1990 and 2013. Our analysis of the individual distance moduli, as well as of their two-year means and standard deviations resulting from this largest data set of LMC distance moduli available to date, focuses specifically on Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable-star tracer populations, as well as on distance estimates based on features in the observational Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We conclude that strong publication bias is unlikely to have been the main driver of the majority of published LMC distance moduli. However, for a given distance tracer, the body of publications leading to the tightly clustered distances is based on highly non-independent tracer samples and analysis methods, hence leading to significant correlations among the LMC distances reported in subsequent articles. Based on a careful, weighted combination, in a statistical sense, of the main stellar population tracers, we recommend that a slightly adjusted canonical distance modulus of (m-M)_0 = 18.49 +- 0.09 mag be used for all practical purposes that require a general distance scale without the need for accuracies of better than a few percent.

Read this paper on arXiv…

R. Grijs, J. Wicker and G. Bono
Fri, 14 Mar 14
39/46

Photoionisation and Heating of a Supernova Driven, Turbulent, Interstellar Medium [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3261


The Diffuse Ionised Gas (DIG) in galaxies traces photoionisation feedback from massive stars. Through three dimensional photoionisation simulations, we study the propagation of ionising photons, photoionisation heating and the resulting distribution of ionised and neutral gas within snapshots of magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a supernova driven turbulent interstellar medium. We also investigate the impact of non-photoionisation heating on observed optical emission line ratios. Inclusion of a heating term which scales less steeply with electron density than photoionisation is required to produce diagnostic emission line ratios similar to those observed with the Wisconsin H{\alpha} Mapper. Once such heating terms have been included, we are also able to produce temperatures similar to those inferred from observations of the DIG, with temperatures increasing to above 15000 K at heights |z| > 1 kpc. We find that ionising photons travel through low density regions close to the midplane of the simulations, while travelling through diffuse low density regions at large heights. The majority of photons travel small distances (< 100pc); however some travel kiloparsecs and ionise the DIG.

Read this paper on arXiv…

J. Barnes, K. Wood, A. Hill, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14
40/46

Effects of Intermediate Mass Black Holes on Nuclear Star Clusters [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3094


Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are dense stellar clusters observed in galactic nuclei, that occasionally host a central black hole. They may form out of the inspiral of multiple star clusters. Here we test the possibility that the constituent clusters host intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Using an N-body code we examine the dynamics of the IMBHs and their effects on the NSC formation and evolution. We find that IMBHs inspiral to the core of the newly formed NSC and segregate there. Although the IMBH scatter each other and the stars, none is ejected from the NSC. The IMBHs are excited to high eccentricities and their radial density profile develops a steep power-law cusp. The stars also develop a power-law cusp (instead of the central core that forms in their absence), but with a shallower slope. The relaxation rate of the NSC accelerates due to the presence of IMBHs as massive-perturbers. This in turn fills the loss-cone and boosts the tidal disruption rate of stars both by the MBH and the IMBHs to a value excluded by observations. The observed lower rate provides a cumulative constraint on the existence of IMBHs in NSCs.

Read this paper on arXiv…

A. Mastrobuono-Battisti, H. Perets and A. Loeb
Fri, 14 Mar 14
43/46

The dust budget crisis in high-redshift submillimetre galaxies [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2995


We apply a chemical evolution model to investigate the sources and evolution of dust in a sample of 26 high-redshift ($z>1$) submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) from the literature, with complete photometry from ultraviolet to the submillimetre. We show that dust produced only by low-intermediate mass stars falls a factor 240 short of the observed dust masses of SMGs, the well-known `dust-budget crisis’. Adding an extra source of dust from supernovae can account for the dust mass in 19 per cent of the SMG sample. Even after accounting for dust produced by supernovae the remaining deficit in the dust mass budget provides support for higher supernova yields, substantial grain growth in the interstellar medium or a top-heavy IMF. Including efficient destruction of dust by supernova shocks increases the tension between our model and observed SMG dust masses. The models which best reproduce the physical properties of SMGs have a rapid build-up of dust from both stellar and interstellar sources and minimal dust destruction. Alternatively, invoking a top-heavy IMF or significant changes in the dust grain properties can solve the dust budget crisis only if dust is produced by both low mass stars and supernovae and is not efficiently destroyed by supernova shocks.

Read this paper on arXiv…

K. Rowlands, H. Gomez, L. Dunne, et. al.
Thu, 13 Mar 14
2/58

Composition of an Emission Line System in Black Hole Host Globular Cluster RZ2109 [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2784


We present an analysis of optical spectra from the globular cluster RZ2109 in NGC4472, which hosts the first unambiguous globular cluster black hole. We use these spectra to determine the elemental composition of the emission line system associated with this source, and to constrain the age and metallicity of the host globular cluster. For the emission line system of RZ2109, our analysis indicates the [O III]5007 equivalent width is 33.82 +- 0.39 Ang and the H beta equivalent width is 0.32 +- 0.32 Ang , producing a formal [O III]5007/H beta emission line ratio of 106 for a 3200 km/s measurement aperture covering the full velocity width of the [O~III]5007 line. Within a narrower 600 \kms aperture covering the highest luminosity velocity structure in the line complex, we find O III]5007/H beta = 62. The measured O III]5007/H beta ratios are significantly higher than can be produced in radiative models of the emission line region with solar composition, and the confidence interval limits exclude all but models which have gas masses much larger than those for a single star. Therefore, we conclude that the region from which the [O~III]5007 emission originates is hydrogen-depleted relative to solar composition gas. This finding is consistent with emission from an accretion-powered outflow driven by a hydrogen-depleted donor star, such as a white dwarf, being accreted onto a black hole.

Read this paper on arXiv…

M. Steele, S. Zepf, T. Maccarone, et. al.
Thu, 13 Mar 14
6/58

Radiative Cooling II: Effects of Density and Metallicity [IMA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3076


This work follows Lykins et al. discussion of classic plasma cooling function at low density and solar metallicity. Here we focus on how the cooling function changes over a wide range of density (n_H<10^12 cm^(-3)) and metallicity (Z<30Z _sun ). We find that high densities enhance the ionization of elements such as hydrogen and helium until they reach local thermodynamic equilibrium. By charge transfer, the metallicity changes the ionization of hydrogen when it is partially ionized. We describe the total cooling function as a sum of four parts: those due to H&He, the heavy elements, electron-electron bremsstrahlung and grains. For the first 3 parts, we provide a low-density limit cooling function, a density dependence function, and a metallicity dependence function. These functions are given with numerical tables and analytical fit functions. For grain cooling, we only discuss in ISM case. We then obtain a total cooling function that depends on density, metallicity and temperature. As expected, collisional de-excitation suppresses the heavy elements cooling. Finally, we provide a function giving the electron fraction, which can be used to convert the cooling function into a cooling rate.

Read this paper on arXiv…

Y. Wang, G. Ferland, M. Lykins, et. al.
Thu, 13 Mar 14
16/58

High abundance ratio of $^{13}$CO to C$^{18}$O toward photon-dominated regions in the Orion-A giant molecular cloud [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2930


Aims. We derive physical properties such as the optical depths and the column densities of $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O to investigate the relationship between the far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation and the abundance ratios between $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O.
Method. We have carried out wide-field (0.4 deg$^2$) observations with an angular resolution of 25.8 arcsec ($\sim$ 0.05 pc) in $^{13}$CO ($J$=1–0) and C$^{18}$O ($J$=1–0) toward the Orion-A giant molecular cloud using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope in the on-the-fly mode.
Results. Overall distributions and velocity structures of the $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O emissions are similar to those of the $^{12}$CO ($J$=1–0) emission. The optical depths of the $^{13}$CO and C18O emission lines are estimated to be 0.05 $<$ $\tau_{\rm ^{13}CO}$ $<$ 1.54 and 0.01 $<$ $\tau_{\rm C^{18}O}$ $<$ 0.18, respectively. The column densities of the $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O emission lines are estimated to be 0.2 $\times$ 10$^{16}$ $<$ $N_{\rm ^{13}CO}$ $<$ 3.7 $\times$ 10$^{17}$ cm$^{-2}$ and 0.4 $\times$ 10$^{15}$ $<$ $N_{\rm C^{18}O}$ $<$ 3.5 $\times$ 10$^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$, respectively. The abundance ratios between $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O, $X_{\rm ^{13}CO}$/$X_{\rm C^{18}O}$, are found to be 5.7 – 33.0. The mean value of $X_{\rm ^{13}CO}$/$X_{\rm C^{18}O}$ in the nearly edge-on photon-dominated regions is found to be 16.47 $\pm$ 0.10, which is a third larger than that the solar system value of 5.5. The mean value of $X_{\rm ^{13}CO}$/$X_{\rm C^{18}O}$ in the other regions is found to be 12.29 $\pm$ 0.02. The difference of the abundance ratio is most likely due to the selective FUV photodissociation of C$^{18}$O.

Read this paper on arXiv…

Y. Shimajiri, Y. Kitamura, M. Saito, et. al.
Thu, 13 Mar 14
17/58

The JCMT dense gas survey of the Perseus Molecular Cloud [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3051


We present the results of a large-scale survey of the very dense gas in the Perseus molecular cloud using HCO+ and HCN (J = 4 – 3) transitions. We have used this emission to trace the structure and kinematics of gas found in pre- and protostellar cores, as well as in outflows. We compare the HCO+/HCN data, highlighting regions where there is a marked discrepancy in the spectra of the two emission lines. We use the HCO+ to identify positively protostellar outflows and their driving sources, and present a statistical analysis of the outflow properties that we derive from this tracer. We find that the relations we calculate between the HCO+ outflow driving force and the Menv and Lbol of the driving source are comparable to those obtained from similar outflow analyses using 12CO, indicating that the two molecules give reliable estimates of outflow properties. We also compare the HCO+ and the HCN in the outflows, and find that the HCN traces only the most energetic outflows, the majority of which are driven by young Class 0 sources. We analyse the abundances of HCN and HCO+ in the particular case of the IRAS 2A outflows, and find that the HCN is much more enhanced than the HCO+ in the outflow lobes. We suggest that this is indicative of shock-enhancement of HCN along the length of the outflow; this process is not so evident for HCO+, which is largely confined to the outflow base.

Read this paper on arXiv…

S. Walker-Smith, J. Richer, J. Buckle, et. al.
Thu, 13 Mar 14
18/58

Core-Halo Age Gradients and Star Formation in the Orion Nebula and NGC~2024 Young Stellar Clusters [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2742


We analyze age distributions of two nearby rich stellar clusters, the NGC 2024 (Flame Nebula) and Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) in the Orion molecular cloud complex. Our analysis is based on samples from the MYStIX survey and a new estimator of pre-main sequence (PMS) stellar ages, AgeJX, derived from X-ray and near-infrared photometric data. To overcome the problem of uncertain individual ages and large spreads of age distributions for entire clusters, we compute median ages and their confidence intervals of stellar samples within annular subregions of the clusters. We find core-halo age gradients in both the NGC 2024 cluster and ONC: PMS stars in cluster cores appear younger and thus were formed later than PMS stars in cluster peripheries. These findings are further supported by the spatial gradients in the disk fraction and K-band excess frequency. Our age analysis is based on AgeJX estimates for PMS stars, and is independent of any consideration of OB stars. The result has important implications for the formation of young stellar clusters. One basic implication is that clusters form slowly and the apparent age spreads in young stellar clusters, which are often controversial, are (at least in part) real. The result further implies that simple models where clusters form inside-out are incorrect, and more complex models are needed. We provide several star formation scenarios that alone or in combination may lead to the observed core-halo age gradients.

Read this paper on arXiv…

K. Getman, E. Feigelson and M. Kuhn
Thu, 13 Mar 14
23/58

Understanding star formation in molecular clouds I. A universal probability distribution of column densities ? [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2996


Column density maps of molecular clouds are one of the most important observables in the context of molecular cloud- and star-formation (SF) studies. With Herschel it is now possible to reveal rather precisely the column density of dust, which is the best tracer of the bulk of material in molecular clouds. However, line-of-sight (LOS) contamination from fore- or background clouds can lead to an overestimation of the dust emission of molecular clouds, in particular for distant clouds. This implies too high values for column density and mass, and a misleading interpretation of probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the column density. In this paper, we demonstrate by using observations and simulations how LOS contamination affects the PDF. We apply a first-order approximation (removing a constant level) to the molecular clouds of Auriga and Maddalena (low-mass star-forming), and Carina and NGC3603(both high-mass SF regions). In perfect agreement with the simulations, we find that the PDFs become broader, the peak shifts to lower column densities, and the power-law tail of the PDF for higher column densities flattens after correction. All corrected PDFs have a lognormal part for low column densities with a peak at Av ~ 2 and a deviation point (DP) from the lognormal at Av(DP) ~ 4-5 (corresponding to a surface density of ~45 Msun pc-2). For higher column densities, all PDFs have a power-law tail with an average slope that corresponds to an exponent alpha = 1.9+-0.2 for an equivalent spherical density distribution rho ~ r^-alpha consistent with a structure dominated by self-gravity (local free-fall of individual cores and global collapse of gas on larger scales, such as filaments). Our PDF study suggests that there is a common, universal column density break at Av ~ 4-5 for all cloud types where the transition between supersonic turbulence and self-gravity takes place.

Read this paper on arXiv…

N. Schneider, V. Ossenkopf, T. Csengeri, et. al.
Thu, 13 Mar 14
24/58

The Evolution of Galaxy Structure over Cosmic Time [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2783


I present a comprehensive review of the evolution of galaxy structure in the universe from the first galaxies we can currently observe at z~6 down to galaxies we see in the local universe. I further address how these changes reveal galaxy formation processes that galaxy structural analyses can provide. This review is pedagogical and begins with a detailed discussion of the major methods in which galaxies are studied morphologically and structurally. This includes the well-established visual method; Sersic fitting to measure galaxy sizes and surface brightness profile shapes; non-parametric structural methods including the concentration (C), asymmetry (A), clumpiness (S) (CAS) method, as well as newer structural indices. Included is a discussion of how these structural indices measure fundamental properties of galaxies such as their scale, star formation rate, and ongoing merger activity. Extensive observational results are shown demonstrating how broad galaxy morphologies and structures change with time up to z~3, from small, compact and peculiar systems in the distant universe to the formation of the Hubble sequence we find today. This review further addresses how structural methods measure accurately the merger history out to z~3. The properties and evolution of bulges, disks, bars, and at z>1 large star forming clumps are also described, along with how morphological galaxy quenching occurs. Furthermore, the role of environment in producing structure in galaxies over cosmic time is treated. Alongside the evolution of general structure, I also delineate how galaxy sizes change with time, with measured sizes up to a factor of 2-5 smaller at high redshift at a given stellar mass. This review concludes with a discussion of how galaxy structure reveals the formation mechanisms behind galaxies, providing a new and unique way to test theories of galaxy formation.

Read this paper on arXiv…

C. Conselice
Thu, 13 Mar 14
25/58

PPMXL photometric study of four open cluster candidates (Ivanov 2, Ivanov 7, Ivanov 9 and Harvard 9) [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3014


The astrophysical parameters of four unstudied open star cluster candidates – Harvard 9, Ivanov 2, Ivanov 7, and Ivanov 9 – have been estimated for the first time using the PPMXL database. The stellar density distributions and color-magnitude diagrams for each cluster are used to determine the geometrical structure (cluster center, limited radius, core and tidal radii, the distances from the Sun, from the Galactic center and from the Galactic plane). Also, the main photometric parameters (age, distance modulus, color excesses, membership, total mass, relaxation time, luminosity and mass functions) are estimated.

Read this paper on arXiv…

A. Tadross and R. Bendary
Thu, 13 Mar 14
28/58

Herschel-ATLAS: Properties of dusty massive galaxies at low and high redshifts [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2994


We present a comparison of the physical properties of a rest-frame $250\mu$m selected sample of massive, dusty galaxies from $0<z<5.3$. Our sample comprises 29 high-redshift submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) from the literature, and 843 dusty galaxies at $z<0.5$ from the Herschel-ATLAS, selected to have a similar stellar mass to the SMGs. The $z>1$ SMGs have an average SFR of $390^{+80}_{-70}\,$M$_\odot$yr$^{-1}$ which is 120 times that of the low-redshift sample matched in stellar mass to the SMGs (SFR$=3.3\pm{0.2}$ M$_\odot$yr$^{-1}$). The SMGs harbour a substantial mass of dust ($1.2^{+0.3}_{-0.2}\times{10}^9\,$M$_\odot$), compared to $(1.6\pm0.1)\times{10}^8\,$M$_\odot$ for low-redshift dusty galaxies. At low redshifts the dust luminosity is dominated by the diffuse ISM, whereas a large fraction of the dust luminosity in SMGs originates from star-forming regions. At the same dust mass SMGs are offset towards a higher SFR compared to the low-redshift H-ATLAS galaxies. This is not only due to the higher gas fraction in SMGs but also because they are undergoing a more efficient mode of star formation, which is consistent with their bursty star-formation histories. The offset in SFR between SMGs and low-redshift galaxies is similar to that found in CO studies, suggesting that dust mass is as good a tracer of molecular gas as CO.

Read this paper on arXiv…

K. Rowlands, L. Dunne, S. Dye, et. al.
Thu, 13 Mar 14
33/58

AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm survey of SSA22: Counterpart identification and photometric redshift survey of submillimeter galaxies [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2725


We present the results from a 1.1 mm imaging survey of the SSA22 field, known for having an overdensity of z=3.1 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs), taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We imaged a 950 arcmin$^2$ field down to a 1 sigma sensitivity of 0.7-1.3 mJy/beam to find 125 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with a signal to noise ratio >= 3.5. Counterpart identification using radio and near/mid-infrared data was performed and one or more counterpart candidates were found for 59 SMGs. Photometric redshifts based on optical to near-infrared images were evaluated for 45 SMGs of these SMGs with Spitzer/IRAC data, and the median value is found to be z=2.4. By combining these estimation with estimates from the literature we determined that 10 SMGs might lie within the large-scale structure at z=3.1. The two-point angular cross-correlation function between LAEs and SMGs indicates that the positions of the SMGs are correlated with the z=3.1 protocluster. These results suggest that the SMGs were formed and evolved selectively in the high dense environment of the high redshift universe. This picture is consistent with the predictions of the standard model of hierarchical structure formation.

Read this paper on arXiv…

H. Umehata, Y. Tamura, K. Kohno, et. al.
Thu, 13 Mar 14
36/58

Detailed Abundance Analysis of the Brightest Star in Segue 2, the Least Massive Galaxy [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2733


We present the first high resolution spectroscopic observations of one red giant star in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Segue 2, which has the lowest total mass (including dark matter) estimated for any known galaxy. These observations were made using the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan II Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We perform a standard abundance analysis of this star, SDSS J021933.13+200830.2, and present abundances of 21 species of 18 elements as well as upper limits for 25 additional species. We derive [Fe/H] = -2.9, in excellent agreement with previous estimates from medium resolution spectroscopy. Our main result is that this star bears the chemical signatures commonly found in field stars of similar metallicity. The heavy elements produced by neutron-capture reactions are present, but they are deficient at levels characteristic of stars in other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies and a few luminous dwarf galaxies. The otherwise normal abundance patterns suggest that the gas from which this star formed was enriched by metals from multiple Type II supernovae reflecting a relatively well-sampled IMF. This adds to the growing body of evidence indicating that Segue 2 may have been substantially more massive in the past.

Read this paper on arXiv…

I. Roederer and E. Kirby
Thu, 13 Mar 14
38/58

Interstellar and Ejecta Dust in the Cas A Supernova Remnant [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3008


Infrared continuum observations provide a means of investigating the physical composition of the dust in the ejecta and swept up medium of the Cas A supernova remnant. Using low resolution Spitzer IRS spectra (5-35 $\mu$m), and broad-band Herschel PACS imaging (70, 100, and 160 $\mu$m), we identify characteristic dust spectra, associated with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories. The most luminous spectrum exhibits strong emission features at $\sim9$ and 21 $\mu$m and is closely associated with ejecta knots with strong Ar emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low Mg to Si ratios. Another dust spectrum is associated with ejecta having strong Ne emission lines. It has no indication of any silicate features, and is best fit by Al$_2$O$_3$ dust. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that are best matched by magnesium silicates with a relatively high Mg to Si ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray emitting shocked ejecta, but it is also evident in regions where shocked interstellar or circumstellar material is expected. However, the identification of dust composition is not unique, and each spectrum includes an additional featureless dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. Most of the dust mass in Cas A is associated with this unidentified cold component, which is $\lesssim0.1$ $M_{\odot}$. The mass of warmer dust is only $\sim 0.04$ $M_{\odot}$.

Read this paper on arXiv…

R. Arendt, E. Dwek, G. Kober, et. al.
Thu, 13 Mar 14
49/58

NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of Luminous, Heavily Obscured, WISE-Selected Quasars at z ~ 2 [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3078


We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected AGN at z~2 in a broad X-ray band (0.1 – 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4um (W1) and 4.6um (W2) bands but bright at 12um (W3) and 22um (W4), are extremely rare, with only ~1000 so-called W1W2-dropouts across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z~2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of L(6um)~6e46 erg/s and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L(bol)~1e14 L(sun). The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10)~4e45 erg/s for typical quasar templates. These are amongst the most luminous AGN known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5um. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N(H)<1e24 /cm2. In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton. A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection. The X-ray data require gas column densities N(H)>1e24 /cm2, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton-thick, luminous quasars. The discovery of a significant population of heavily obscured, extremely luminous AGN does not conform to the standard paradigm of a receding torus, in which more luminous quasars are less likely to be obscured. If a larger sample conforms with this finding, then this suggests an additional source of obscuration for these extreme sources.

Read this paper on arXiv…

D. Stern, G. Lansbury, R. Assef, et. al.
Thu, 13 Mar 14
50/58

The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS) I. Data Overview and Analysis Demonstration with NGC 6781 [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2494


This is the first of a series of investigations into far-IR characteristics of 11 planetary nebulae (PNs) under the Herschel Space Observatory Open Time 1 program, Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS). Using the HerPlaNS data set, we look into the PN energetics and variations of the physical conditions within the target nebulae. In the present work, we provide an overview of the survey, data acquisition and processing, and resulting data products. We perform (1) PACS/SPIRE broadband imaging to determine the spatial distribution of the cold dust component in the target PNs and (2) PACS/SPIRE spectral-energy-distribution (SED) and line spectroscopy to determine the spatial distribution of the gas component in the target PNs. For the case of NGC 6781, the broadband maps confirm the nearly pole-on barrel structure of the amorphous carbon-richdust shell and the surrounding halo having temperatures of 26-40 K. The PACS/SPIRE multi-position spectra show spatial variations of far-IR lines that reflect the physical stratification of the nebula. We demonstrate that spatially-resolved far-IR line diagnostics yield the (T_e, n_e) profiles, from which distributions of ionized, atomic, and molecular gases can be determined. Direct comparison of the dust and gas column mass maps constrained by the HerPlaNS data allows to construct an empirical gas-to-dust mass ratio map, which shows a range of ratios with the median of 195+-110. The present analysis yields estimates of the total mass of the shell to be 0.86 M_sun, consisting of 0.54 M_sun of ionized gas, 0.12 M_sun of atomic gas, 0.2 M_sun of molecular gas, and 4 x 10^-3 M_sun of dust grains. These estimates also suggest that the central star of about 1.5 M_sun initial mass is terminating its PN evolution onto the white dwarf cooling track.

Read this paper on arXiv…

T. Ueta, D. Ladjal, K. Exter, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
1/46

A Herschel and BIMA study of the sequential star formation near the W48A HII region [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2426


We present the results of Herschel HOBYS photometric mapping combined with BIMA observations and additional archival data, and perform an in-depth study of the evolutionary phases of the star-forming clumps in W 48A and their surroundings. Age estimates for the compact sources were derived from bolometric luminosities and envelope masses, which were obtained from the dust continuum emission, and agree within an order of magnitude with age estimates from molecular line and radio data. The clumps in W 48A are linearly aligned by age (east-old to west-young): we find a ultra compact (UC) HII region, a young stellar object (YSO) with class II methanol maser emission, a YSO with a massive outflow, and finally the NH_2D prestellar cores from Pillai et al. This remarkable positioning reflects the (star) formation history of the region. We find that it is unlikely that the star formation in the W 48A molecular cloud was triggered by the UCHII region and discuss the Aquila supershell expansion as a mayor influence on the evolution of W 48A. We conclude that the combination of Herschel continuum data with interferometric molecular line and radio continuum data is important to derive trustworthy age estimates and interpret the origin of large scale structures through kinematic information.

Read this paper on arXiv…

K. Rygl, S. Goedhart, D. Polychroni, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
3/46

The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. VII. The Steep Mid-Ultraviolet to Near-Infrared Extinction Curve in the Central 200 pc of the M31 Bulge [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2691


We measure the extinction curve in the central 200 pc of M31 at mid-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths (from 1928A to 1.5{\mu}m), using Swift/UVOT and HST WFC3/ACS observations in thirteen bands. Taking advantage of the high angular resolution of the HST WFC3 and ACS detectors, we develop a method to simultaneously determine the relative extinction and the fraction of obscured starlight for five dusty complexes located in the circumnuclear region. The extinction curves of these clumps (RV =2.4-2.5) are steeper than the average Galactic one (RV =3.1), but are similar to optical and near-infrared curves recently measured toward the Galactic Bulge (RV~2.5). This similarity suggests that steep extinction curves may be common in the inner bulge of galaxies. In the ultraviolet, the extinction curves of these clumps are also unusual. We find that one dusty clump (size <2 pc) exhibits a strong UV bump (extinction at 2175A), more than three standard deviation higher than that predicted by common models. Although the high stellar metallicity of the M31 bulge indicates that there are sufficient carbon and silicon to produce large dust grains, the grains may have been destroyed by supernova explosions or past activity of the central super-massive black hole, resulting in the observed steepened extinction curve.

Read this paper on arXiv…

H. Dong, Z. Li, Q. Wang, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
8/46

Evolution induced by dry minor mergers on to Fast Rotator S0 galaxies [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2430


We have analysed collisionless N-body simulations of intermediate and minor dry mergers on to S0s to test whether these mergers can generate S0 galaxies with intermediate kinematics between Fast and Slow Rotators. We find that minor mergers induce a lower decrease of the global rotational support than encounters of lower mass ratios, giving rise to S0s with intermediate properties between Fast and Slow Rotators. The resulting remnants are intrinsically more triaxial, less flattened, and span the whole range of apparent ellipticities up to $\epsilon_\mathrm{e} \sim 0.8$. They do not show lower apparent ellipticities in random projections than initially; on the contrary, the formation of oval distortions and the disc thickening raise the percentage of projections at $0.4 < \epsilon_\mathrm{e} < 0.7$. In the experiments with S0b progenitor galaxies, minor mergers tend to spin up the bulge and to decrease slightly its intrinsic ellipticity, whereas in the cases of primary S0c galaxies they keep the rotational support of the bulge nearly constant and decrease significantly its intrinsic ellipticity. The remnant bulges remain nearly spherical ($B/A \sim C/A > 0.9$), but exhibit a wide range of triaxialities ($0.20 < T < 1.00$). In the plane of global anisotropy of velocities ($\delta$) vs. intrinsic ellipticity ($\epsilon_\mathrm{e,intr}$), some of our models extend the linear trend found in previous major merger simulations towards higher $\epsilon_\mathrm{e,intr}$ values, while others depart from it. This is consistent with the wide dispersion exhibited by real S0s in this diagram as compared to ellipticals, which follow the linear trend drawn by major merger simulations. The different trends exhibited by ellipticals and S0 galaxies in the $\delta$ — $\epsilon_\mathrm{e}$ diagram may be pointing to the different role played by major mergers in the buildup of each morphological type.

Read this paper on arXiv…

T. Tapia, M. Eliche-Moral, M. Querejeta, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
18/46

Apex determination and detection of stellar clumps in the open cluster M 67 [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2532


We determined the cluster apex coordinates, studied the substructures and performed membership analysis in the central part (34’X33′) of the open cluster M 67. We used the individual stellar apexes method developed earlier and classical technique of proper motion diagrams in coordinate system connected with apex. The neighbour-to-neighbour distance technique was applied to detect space details. The membership list was corrected and some stars were excluded from the most probable members list. The apex coordinates have been determined as: A0=132.97deg+/-0.81deg and D0=11.85deg+/-0.90deg. The 2D-space star density field was analysed and high degree of inhomogeneity was found.

Read this paper on arXiv…

S. Vereshchagin, N. Chupina, D. Sariya, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
19/46

Proper motions for HST observations in three off-axis bulge fields [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2533


Aims. This is the second in a series of papers that attempt to unveil the kinematic structure of the Galactic bulge through studying radial velocities and proper motions. We report here ~15000 new proper motions for three low foreground-extinction off-axis fields of the Galactic bulge. Methods. Proper motions were derived from a combination of Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images taken 8 and 9 years apart, and ACS observations taken 9 and 10 years apart, and they reach accuracies better than 0.9 mas/yr for more than ~10000 objects with magnitudes F814W < 24. Results. The proper motion distributions in these fields are similar to those of Galactic minor axis bulge fields. We observe the rotation of main sequence stars below the turn-off within the Galactic bulge, as in the minor axis fields. Conclusions. Our stellar proper motions measurements show a significant bulge rotation for fields as far from the galactic plane as b=-8.

Read this paper on arXiv…

M. Soto, H. Zeballos, K. Kuijken, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
20/46

A Broadband Polarization Catalog of Extragalactic Radio Sources [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2391


An understanding of cosmic magnetism requires converting the polarization properties of extragalactic radio sources into the rest-frame in which the corresponding polarized emission or Faraday rotation is produced. Motivated by this requirement, we present a catalog of multiwavelength linear polarization and total intensity radio data for polarized sources from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). We cross-match these sources with a number of complementary measurements — combining data from major radio polarization and total intensity surveys such as AT20G, B3-VLA, GB6, NORTH6CM, Texas, and WENSS, together with other polarization data published over the last 50 years. For 951 sources, we present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in both fractional polarization and total intensity, each containing between 3 and 56 independent measurements from 400 MHz to 100 GHz. We physically model these SEDs, and where available provide the redshift of the optical counterpart. For a superset of 25,649 sources we provide the total intensity spectral index, $\alpha$. Objects with steep versus flat $\alpha$ generally have different polarization SEDs: steep-spectrum sources exhibit depolarization, while flat-spectrum sources maintain constant polarized fractions over large ranges in wavelength. This suggests the run of polarized fraction with wavelength is predominantly affected by the local source environment, rather than by unrelated foreground magnetoionic material. In addition, a significant fraction (21%) of sources exhibit “repolarization”, which further suggests that polarized SEDs are affected by different emitting regions within the source, rather than by a particular depolarization law. This has implications for the physical interpretation of future broadband polarimetric surveys.

Read this paper on arXiv…

J. Farnes, B. Gaensler and E. Carretti
Wed, 12 Mar 14
21/46

The Chemical Evolution of Fluorine in the Bulge – High-resolution K-band spectra of giants in three fields [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2594


Possible main formation sites of F in the Universe include AGB stars, the {\nu}-process in Type II SNe, and/or W-R stars. The importance of the W-R stars has theoretically been questioned and they are probably not needed in the modelling of the chemical evolution of F in the solar neighborhood. It has, however, been suggested that W-R stars are indeed needed to explain the chemical evolution of F in the Bulge. The molecular spectral data of the often used HF-molecule has not been presented in a complete and consistent way and has recently been debated in the literature. In this article we determine the [F/O] vs. [O/H] trend in the Bulge to investigate the possible contribution from W-R stars. Additionally, we present here a HF line list for the K- and L-bands (including the often used 23358.33 {\AA} line) and an accompanying partition function. The F abundances were determined using spectral fitting from hi-res NIR spectra of eight K giants recorded by the spectrograph CRIRES. We have also re-analyzed five previously published Bulge giants using our new HF molecular data. We find that the F-O abundance in the Bulge probably cannot be explained with chemical evolution models including only AGB-stars and the {\nu}-process in SNe Type II, i.e. a significant amount of F production in W-R stars is likely needed to explain the F abundance in the Bulge. Concerning the HF line list, we find that a possible reason for the inconsistencies in the literature, with two different excitation energies being used, is two different definitions of the zero-point energy for the HF molecule and therefore also two accompanying different dissociation energies. Both line lists are correct, as long as the corresponding consistent partition function is used in the spectral synthesis. However, we suspect this has not been the case in several earlier works leading to F abundances 0.3 dex too high.

Read this paper on arXiv…

H. Jonsson, N. Ryde, G. Harper, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
24/46

Non-linear galactic dynamos: A toolbox [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2562


We compare various models and approximations for non-linear mean-field dynamos in disc galaxies to assess their applicability and accuracy, and thus to suggest a set of simple solutions suitable to model the large-scale galactic magnetic fields in various contexts. The dynamo saturation mechanisms considered are the magnetic helicity balance involving helicity fluxes (the dynamical $\alpha$-quenching) and an algebraic $\alpha$-quenching. The non-linear solutions are then compared with the marginal kinematic and asymptotic solutions. We also discuss the accuracy of the no-$z$ approximation. Although these tools are very different in the degree of approximation and hence complexity, they all lead to remarkably similar solutions for the mean magnetic field. In particular, we show that the algebraic $\alpha$-quenching non-linearity can be obtained from a more physical dynamical $\alpha$-quenching model in the limit of nearly azimuthal magnetic field. This suggests, for instance, that earlier results on galactic disc dynamos based on the simple algebraic non-linearity are likely to be reliable, and that estimates based on simple, even linear models are often a good starting point. We suggest improved no-$z$ and algebraic $\alpha$-quenching models, and also incorporate galactic outflows into a simple analytical dynamo model to show that the outflow can produce leading magnetic spirals near the disc surface. The simple dynamo models developed are applied to estimate the magnetic pitch angle and the arm-interarm contrast in the saturated magnetic field strength for realistic parameter values.

Read this paper on arXiv…

L. Chamandy, A. Shukurov, K. Subramanian, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
30/46

NuSTAR J033202-2746.8: direct constraints on the Compton reflection in a heavily obscured quasar at z~2 [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2491


We report NuSTAR observations of NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, a heavily obscured, radio-loud quasar detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, the deepest layer of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey (~400 ks, at its deepest). NuSTAR J033202-2746.8 is reliably detected by NuSTAR only at E>8 keV and has a very flat spectral slope in the NuSTAR energy band (Gamma=0.55^{+0.62}_{-0.64}; 3-30 keV). Combining the NuSTAR data with extremely deep observations by Chandra and XMM-Newton (4 Ms and 3 Ms, respectively), we constrain the broad-band X-ray spectrum of NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, indicating that this source is a heavily obscured quasar (N_H=5.6^{+0.9}_{-0.8}x10^23 cm^-2) with luminosity L_{10-40 keV}~6.4×10^44 erg s^-1. Although existing optical and near-infrared (near-IR) data, as well as follow-up spectroscopy with the Keck and VLT telescopes, failed to provide a secure redshift identification for NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, we reliably constrain the redshift z=2.00+/-0.04 from the X-ray spectral features (primarily from the iron K edge). The NuSTAR spectrum shows a significant reflection component (R=0.55^{+0.44}_{-0.37}), which was not constrained by previous analyses of Chandra and XMM-Newton data alone. The measured reflection fraction is higher than the R~0 typically observed in bright radio-loud quasars such as NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, which has L_{1.4 GHz}~10^27 W Hz^-1. Constraining the spectral shape of AGN, including bright quasars, is very important for understanding the AGN population, and can have a strong impact on the modeling of the X-ray background. Our results show the importance of NuSTAR in investigating the broad-band spectral properties of quasars out to high redshift.

Read this paper on arXiv…

A. Moro, J. Mullaney, D. Alexander, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
31/46

The Galaxy Cluster Mid-Infrared Luminosity Function at 1.3<z<3.2 [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2390


We present 4.5 {\mu}m luminosity functions for galaxies identified in 178 candidate galaxy clusters at 1.3 < z < 3.2. The clusters were identified as Spitzer/IRAC color-selected overdensities in the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN (CARLA) project, which imaged 421 powerful radio-loud AGN at z > 1.3. The luminosity functions are derived for different redshift and richness bins, and the IRAC imaging reaches depths of m*+2, allowing us to measure the faint end slopes of the luminosity functions. We find that {\alpha} = -1 describes the luminosity function very well in all redshifts bins and does not evolve significantly. This provides evidence that the rate at which the low mass galaxy population grows through star formation, gets quenched and is replenished by in-falling field galaxies does not have a major net effect on the shape of the luminosity function. Our measurements for m* are consistent with passive evolution models and high formation redshifts z_f ~ 3. We find a slight trend towards fainter m* for the richest clusters, implying that the most massive clusters in our sample could contain older stellar populations, yet another example of cosmic downsizing. Modelling shows that a contribution of a star-forming population of up to 40% cannot be ruled out. This value, found from our targeted survey, is significantly lower than the values found for slightly lower redshift, z ~ 1, clusters found in wide-field surveys. The results are consistent with cosmic downsizing, as the clusters studied here were all found in the vicinity of radio-loud AGNs — which have proven to be preferentially located in massive dark matter halos in the richest environments at high redshift — they may therefore be older and more evolved systems than the general protocluster population.

Read this paper on arXiv…

D. Wylezalek, J. Vernet, C. Breuck, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
38/46

A thousand shadows of Andromeda: rotating planes of satellites in the Millennium-II cosmological simulation [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2389


In a recent contribution, Bahl \& Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation, and concluded that vast thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in $\Lambda$-Cold Dark Matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata et al. (2013) on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04\% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the angular momentum properties of the co-planar satellites, and find that the median of the specific angular momentum derived from the line of sight velocities in the real M31 structure ($1.3\times10^4$ km/s kpc) is very high compared to systems drawn from the simulations. This analysis confirms that it is highly unlikely that the observed structure around the Andromeda galaxy is due to a chance occurrence. Interestingly, the few extreme systems that are similar to M31 arise from the accretion of a massive sub-halo with its own spatially-concentrated entourage of orphan satellites.

Read this paper on arXiv…

R. Ibata, N. Ibata, G. Lewis, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
40/46

A Stellar Population Synthesis Model for the Study of Ultraviolet Star Counts of the Galaxy [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2561


GALEX, the first all sky imaging UV satellite, has imaged a large part of the sky providing an excellent opportunity for studying UV star counts. The aim of our study is to investigate in detail the observed UV star counts obtained by GALEX vis-a-vis the model simulated catalogs produced by the Besancon model of stellar population synthesis in various Galactic directions, and to explore the potential for studying the structure of our Galaxy from images in multiple NUV and FUV filters of the forthcoming Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) to be flown onboard ASTROSAT. We have upgraded the Besancon model of stellar population synthesis to include the UV bands of GALEX and UVIT. Depending on the availability of contiguous GALEX, SDSS, WISE and 2MASS overlapping regions, we have chosen a set of 19 GALEX fields which spread over a range of Galactic directions. We cross-matched GALEX sources with the WISE+2MASS and SDSS catalogs and UV stars in the GALEX catalog are identified by choosing a suitable IR colour, J – W1 (W1 is a WISE band at 3.4 microns). The IR colour cut method, which is used for the first time for separation of stars, is discussed in comparison with the GALEX+SDSS star counts method. We present the results of the UV star counts analysis carried out using the data from GALEX. We find that the Besancon model simulations represent the observed star counts of both the GALEX AIS and MIS well within the error bars in various Galactic directions. Based on the model analysis, we separated out white dwarfs of the disc and blue horizontal branch stars of the halo from the observed sample by selecting a suitable FUV – NUV colour. The Besancon model is now ready for further comparisons in the UV domain and will be used for prospective studies for the UVIT instrument to be flown onboard ASTROSAT.

Read this paper on arXiv…

A. Pradhan, D. Ojha, A. Robin, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
41/46

A far-IR view of the starburst driven superwind in NGC 2146 [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2381


NGC 2146, a nearby luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG), presents evidence for outflows along the disk minor axis in all gas phases (ionized, neutral atomic and molecular). We present an analysis of the multi-phase starburst driven superwind in the central 5 kpc as traced in spatially resolved spectral line observations, using far-IR Herschel PACS spectroscopy, to probe the effects on the atomic and ionized gas, and optical integral field spectroscopy to examine the ionized gas through diagnostic line ratios. We observe an increased ~250 km/s velocity dispersion in the [OI] 63 micron, [OIII] 88 micron, [NII] 122 micron and [CII] 158 micron fine-structure lines that is spatially coincident with high excitation gas above and below the disk. We model this with a slow ~200 km/s shock and trace the superwind to the edge of our field of view 2.5 kpc above the disk. We present new SOFIA 37 micron observations to explore the warm dust distribution, and detect no clear dust entrainment in the outflow. The stellar kinematics appear decoupled from the regular disk rotation seen in all gas phases, consistent with a recent merger event disrupting the system. We consider the role of the superwind in the evolution of NGC 2146 and speculate on the evolutionary future of the system. Our observations of NGC 2146 in the far-IR allow an unobscured view of the wind, crucial for tracing the superwind to the launching region at the disk center, and provide a local analog for future ALMA observations of outflows in high redshift systems.

Read this paper on arXiv…

K. Kreckel, L. Armus, B. Groves, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
43/46

A comprehensive view of the Virgo Stellar Stream [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2388


Radial velocities and metallicities have been measured for 82 RR Lyrae identified by the QUEST survey in the direction of the Virgo constellation. Distributed over 90 sq. deg. of the sky, they lie from 4 to 23 kpc from the Sun. Using an algorithm for finding groups in phase space and modeling the smooth halo component in the region, we identified the 5 most significant RRLS groups. We have examined the SEKBO and the Catalina catalog of RRLS (Prior et al. 2009, and Drake et al. 2013), as well as the bright QUEST RRLS sample (Vivas et al. in prep.), the catalogs of Blue Horizontal Branch stars compiled by Sirko et al (2004) and Brown et al (2008, 2010) and the catalog of Red Giant stars from the Spaghetti survey, for stars that may be related to the QUEST RRLS groups. The most significant group of RRLS is the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS, Duffau et al 2006), group A, which is composed of at least 10 RRLS and 3 BHB stars. It has a mean distance of 19.6 kpc and a mean radial velocity Vgsr = 128 km/s, as estimated from its RRLS members. With the revised velocities reported here, there is no longer an offset in velocity between the RRLS in the VSS and the prominent peak in the velocities of main-sequence turnoff stars reported by Newberg et al (2007) in the same direction and at a similar distance (S297+63-20.5). The location in phase space of two other groups (F,H) suggests a possible connection with the VSS, which cannot be discarded at this point, although the turnoff colors of the VSS and group H, as identified from Newberg et al. (2007), suggest they might be composed of different populations. Two more groups (B,D), are found at mean distances of 19 and 5.7 kpc, and mean radial velocities of -94 and 32 km/s. None of our groups seems to relate to Sgr streams. The excess of stars observed in Virgo appears to be composed of several halo substructures along the same line of sight.

Read this paper on arXiv…

S. Duffau, A. Vivas, R. Zinn, et. al.
Wed, 12 Mar 14
46/46

Fermi Bubbles Inflated by Winds Launched from the Hot Accretion Flow in Sgr A* [HEAP]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2129


A pair of giant gamma-ray bubbles which extend ~50 degrees above and below the Galactic plane with a width of ?~40 degrees are revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The formation mechanism of the bubbles is still under debate. Many observations have strongly indicated that the activity of the supermassive black hole located in the Galactic center, Sgr A*, is likely much stronger than the present time, and the Fermi bubbles may be the result of this activity. Speci?cally, the previous independent quantitative studies to the past activity show that while Sgr A* was also in a hot accretion regime, the accretion rate should be 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than the present value and last for 10^7 yr. Recent MHD numerical simulations of hot accretion flows have shown the existence of winds from hot accretion flows and obtained their main properties such as mass flux and velocity. Based on these knowledge and constraints, in this paper we have performed three-dimensional hydrodynamical numerical simulations to study the formation of the Fermi bubbles. We ?find that the winds can well explain the main observational features of the Fermi bubbles. The active phases is required to last for about 10 million years and the later quiescent state should last for no more than 0.2 million years. Disc-like and massive Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) changes the outflow orientation, to be approximately towards Galactic poles. Viscosity suppresses the Rayleigh- Taylor (RT) instability and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, which induces a smooth edge. The observed ROSAT X-ray features can be interpreted by the shocked interstellar medium (ISM) and the interaction region between outflow gas and CMZ gas. Moreover, the thermal pressure and the temperature are in very good consistency with the recent Suzaku observational results.

Read this paper on arXiv…

G. Mou, F. Yuan, D. Bu, et. al.
Tue, 11 Mar 14
7/66

The galactic habitable zone of the Milky Way and M31 from chemical evolution models with gas radial flows [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2268


The galactic habitable zone is defined as the region with sufficient abundance of heavy elements to form planetary systems in which Earth-like planets could be born and might be capable of sustaining life, after surviving to close supernova explosion events. Galactic chemical evolution models can be useful for studying the galactic habitable zones in different systems. We apply detailed chemical evolution models including radial gas flows to study the galactic habitable zones in our Galaxy and M31. We compare the results to the relative galactic habitable zones found with “classical” (independent ring) models, where no gas inflows were included. For both the Milky Way and Andromeda, the main effect of the gas radial inflows is to enhance the number of stars hosting a habitable planet with respect to the “classical” model results, in the region of maximum probability for this occurrence, relative to the classical model results. These results are obtained by taking into account the supernova destruction processes. In particular, we find that in the Milky Way the maximum number of stars hosting habitable planets is at 8 kpc from the Galactic center, and the model with radial flows predicts a number which is 38% larger than what predicted by the classical model. For Andromeda we find that the maximum number of stars with habitable planets is at 16 kpc from the center and that in the case of radial flows this number is larger by 10 % relative to the stars predicted by the classical model.

Read this paper on arXiv…

E. Spitoni, F. Matteucci and A. Sozzetti
Tue, 11 Mar 14
11/66

Towards a Determination of Definitive Parameters for the Long Period Cepheid S Vulpeculae [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.1968


A new compilation of UBV data for stars near the Cepheid S Vul incorporates BV observations from APASS and NOMAD to augment UBV observations published previously. A reddening analysis yields mean colour excesses and distance moduli for two main groups of stars in the field: the sparse cluster Turner 1 and an anonymous background group of BA stars. The former appears to be 1.07+-0.12 kpc distant and reddened by E(B-V)=0.45+-0.05, with an age of 10^9 yrs. The previously overlooked latter group is 3.48+-0.19 kpc distant and reddened by E(B-V)=0.78+-0.02, with an age of 1.3×10^7 yrs. Parameters inferred for S Vul under the assumption that it belongs to the distant group, as also argued by 2MASS data, are all consistent with similar results for other cluster Cepheids and Cepheid-like supergiants.

Read this paper on arXiv…

D. Turner
Tue, 11 Mar 14
12/66

Radiation Feedback in ULIRGS: Are Photons Movers and Shakers? [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.1874


We use our variable Eddington tensor (VET) radiation hydrodynamics code to perform two-dimensional simulations to study the impact of radiation forces on atmospheres composed of dust and gas. Our setup closely follows that of Krumholz & Thompson, assuming that dust and gas are well-coupled and that the radiation field is characterized by blackbodies with temperatures >~ 80 K, as might be found in ultraluminous infrared galaxies. In agreement with previous work, we find that Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities develop in radiation supported atmospheres, leading to inhomogeneities that limit momentum exchange between radiation and dusty gas, and eventually providing a near balance of the radiation and gravitational forces. However, the evolution of the velocity and spatial distributions of the gas differs significantly from previous work, which utilized a less accurate flux-limited diffusion (FLD) method. Our VET simulations show continuous net acceleration of the gas, with no steady-state reached by the end of the simulation. In contrast, FLD results show little net acceleration of the gas and settle in to a quasi-steady, turbulent state with low velocity dispersion. The discrepancies result primarily from the inability of FLD to properly model the variation of the radiation field around structures that are less than a few optical depths across. We conclude that radiation feedback remains a viable mechanism for driving high-Mach number turbulence. We discuss implications for observed systems and global numerical simulations of feedback, but more realistic setups are needed to make robust observational predictions and assess the prospect of launching outflows with radiation.

Read this paper on arXiv…

S. Davis, Y. Jiang, J. Stone, et. al.
Tue, 11 Mar 14
17/66

Progenitor constraints on the Type-Ia supernova SN2011fe from pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope HeII narrow-band observations [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.1878


We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging observations of the site of the Type-Ia supernova SN2011fe in the nearby galaxy M101, obtained about one year prior to the event, in a narrow band centred on the HeII 4686 \AA{} emission line. In a “single-degenerate” progenitor scenario, the hard photon flux from an accreting white dwarf (WD), burning hydrogen on its surface over $\sim1$ Myr should, in principle, create a HeIII Str\”{o}mgren sphere or shell surrounding the WD. Depending on the WD luminosity, the interstellar density, and the velocity of an outflow from the WD, the HeIII region could appear unresolved, extended, or as a ring, with a range of possible surface brightnesses. We find no trace of HeII 4686 \AA{} line emission in the HST data. Using simulations, we set $2\sigma$ upper limits on the HeII 4686 \AA{} luminosity of $L_{\rm HeII} < 3.4 \times 10^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$ for a point source, corresponding to an emission region of radius $r < 1.8$ pc. The upper limit for an extended source is $L_{\rm HeII} < 1.7 \times 10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$, corresponding to an extended region with $r\sim11$ pc. The largest detectable shell, given an interstellar-medium density of 1 cm$^{-3}$, has a radius of $\sim6$ pc. Our results argue against the presence, within the $\sim10^5$ yr prior to the explosion, of a supersoft X-ray source of luminosity $L_{\rm bol} \ge 3 \times 10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$, or of a super-Eddington accreting WD that produces an outflowing wind capable of producing cavities with radii of 2-6 pc.

Read this paper on arXiv…

O. Graur, D. Maoz and M. Shara
Tue, 11 Mar 14
25/66

High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of the Local Hot Gas along the 3C 273 Sightline [HEAP]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2028


X-ray observations of highly ionized metal absorption lines at z=0 provide critical information of the hot gas distribution in and around the Milky Way. We present a study of more than ten-year Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of 3C 273, one of the brightest extragalactic X-ray sources. Compared with previous work, We obtain much tighter constraints of the physical properties of the X-ray absorber. We also find a large, non-thermal velocity at ~ 100 – 150 km/s is the main reason for the higher line equivalent width when compared with other sightlines. Using joint analysis with X-ray emission and ultraviolet observations, we derive a size of 5 – 15 kpc and a temperature of (1.5-1.8) 10^6 K for the X-ray absorber. The 3C 273 sightline passes through a number of Galactic structures, including the radio Loop I, IV, the North Polar Spur, and the neighborhood of the newly discovered “Fermi bubbles”. We argue that the X-ray absorber is unlikely associated with the nearby radio Loop I and IV; however, the non-thermal velocity can be naturally explained as the result of the expansion of the “Fermi bubbles”. Our data implies an shock-expansion velocity of 200 – 300 km/s. Our study indicates a likely complex environment for the production of the Galactic X-ray absorbers along different sightlines, and highlights the significance of probing galactic feedback with high resolution X-ray spectroscopy.

Read this paper on arXiv…

T. Fang and X. Jiang
Tue, 11 Mar 14
27/66

Abundant molecular gas and inefficient star formation in intracluster regions: Ram pressure stripped tail of the Norma galaxy ESO137-001 [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2328


For the first time, we reveal large amounts of cold molecular gas in a ram pressure stripped tail, out to a large, intracluster distance from the galaxy. With the ESO APEX telescope we have detected 12CO(2-1) emission corresponding to more than 10^9 Msun of molecular gas (assuming a Galactic value of the CO-to-H_2 conversion factor) in three Ha bright regions along the tail of the Norma cluster ram pressure stripped galaxy ESO137-001, out to a projected distance of 40 kpc from the disk. The amount of 1.5×10^8 Msun of H_2 found in the most distant region is similar to molecular masses of tidal dwarf galaxies. We speculate that a ram pressure dwarf galaxy (RPDG) could be forming in this location. Along the tail, the amount of molecular gas was found to drop, while masses of the X-ray emitting and diffuse ionized components stay roughly constant. Moreover, the amounts of hot and cold gas are large and similar, and together nearly account for the missing gas from the disk. We find a very low star formation efficiency (tau>10^10 yr) in the stripped gas in ESO~137-001 and suggest that this is due to a low average gas density in the tail, or turbulent heating of the interstellar medium that is induced by a ram pressure shock. By means of simple numerical modeling, we suggest that ESO137-001 may be at a high orbital velocity of about 3000 km/s in the Norma cluster, in order to be consistent with a first infall scenario. The corresponding strong ram pressure would then be able to strip denser gas than is usual in other known ram pressure stripped galaxies. Such a dense component in the tail is more able to quickly transform into molecular gas than stripped diffuse gas. The unprecedented bulk of observed molecular gas in the ESO137-001 tail also suggests that some stripped gas may survive ram pressure stripping in the molecular phase.

Read this paper on arXiv…

P. Jachym, F. Combes, L. Cortese, et. al.
Tue, 11 Mar 14
28/66

High Spatial Resolution of the Mid-Infrared Emission of Compton-Thick Seyfert 2 Galaxy Mrk3 [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2266


Mid-infrared (MIR) spectra observed with Gemini/Michelle were used to study the nuclear region of the Compton-thick Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) galaxy Mrk 3 at a spatial resolution of $\sim$200 pc. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission bands were detected in the N-band spectrum of Mrk 3. However, intense [Ar III] 8.99 $\mu$m, [S IV] 10.5 $\mu$m and [Ne II] 12.8 $\mu$m ionic emission-lines, as well as silicate absorption feature at 9.7$\mu$m have been found in the nuclear extraction ($\sim$200 pc). We also present subarcsecond-resolution Michelle N-band image of Mrk 3 which resolves its circumnuclear region. This diffuse MIR emission shows up as a wings towards East-West direction closely aligned with the S-shaped of the Narrow Line Region (NLR) observed at optical [O III]$\lambda$5007\AA image with Hubble/FOC. The nuclear continuum spectrum can be well represented by a theoretical torus spectral energy distribution (SED), suggesting that the nucleus of Mrk 3 may host a dusty toroidal structure predicted by the unified model of active galactic nucleus (AGN). In addition, the hydrogen column density (N$_H\,=\,4.8^{+3.3}_{-3.1}\times\,10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$) estimated with a torus model for Mrk 3 is consistent with the value derived from X-ray spectroscopy. The torus model geometry of Mrk 3 is similar to that of NGC 3281, both Compton-thick galaxies, confirmed through fitting the 9.7$\mu$m silicate band profile. This results might provide further evidence that the silicate-rich dust can be associated with the AGN torus and may also be responsible for the absorption observed at X-ray wavelengths in those galaxies.

Read this paper on arXiv…

D. Sales, D. Ruschel-Dutra, M. Pastoriza, et. al.
Tue, 11 Mar 14
40/66

The SDSS-2MASS-WISE Ten Dimensional Stellar Color Locus [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.1875


We present the fiducial main sequence stellar locus traced by 10 photometric colors observed by SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE. Median colors are determined using 1,052,793 stars with r-band extinction less than 0.125. We use this locus to measure the dust extinction curve relative to the r-band, which is consistent with previous measurements in the SDSS and 2MASS bands. The WISE band extinction coefficients are larger than predicted by standard extinction models. Using 13 lines of sight, we find variations in the extinction curve in H, Ks, and WISE bandpasses. Relative extinction decreases towards Galactic anti-center, in agreement with prior studies. Relative extinction increases with Galactic latitude, in contrast to previous observations. This indicates a universal mid-IR extinction law does not exist due to variations in dust grain size and chemistry with Galactocentric position. A preliminary search for outliers due to warm circumstellar dust is also presented, using stars with high signal-to-noise in the W3-band. We find 199 such outliers, identified by excess emission in Ks-W3. Inspection of SDSS images for these outliers reveals a large number of contaminants due to nearby galaxies. Six sources appear to be genuine dust candidates, yielding a fraction of systems with infrared excess of 0.12$\pm$0.05%.

Read this paper on arXiv…

J. Davenport, Z. Ivezic, A. Becker, et. al.
Tue, 11 Mar 14
54/66