# Dynamics and evolution of planets in mean-motion resonances [EPA]

In some planetary systems the orbital periods of two of its members present a commensurability, usually known by mean-motion resonance. These resonances greatly enhance the mutual gravitational influence of the planets. As a consequence, these systems present uncommon behaviours and their motions need to be studied with specific methods. Some features are unique and allow us a better understanding and characterisation of these systems. Moreover, mean-motion resonances are a result of an early migration of the orbits in an accretion disk, so it is possible to derive constraints on their formation. Here we review the dynamics of a pair of resonant planets and explain how their orbits evolve in time. We apply our results to the HD45365 planetary system

A. Correia, J. Delisle and J. Laskar
Thu, 9 Feb 17
24/67

# An Analytic Criterion for Turbulent Disruption of Planetary Resonances [EPA]

Mean motion commensurabilities in multi-planet systems are an expected outcome of protoplanetary disk-driven migration, and their relative dearth in the observational data presents an important challenge to current models of planet formation and dynamical evolution. One natural mechanism that can lead to the dissolution of commensurabilities is stochastic orbital forcing, induced by turbulent density fluctuations within the nebula. While this process is qualitatively promising, the conditions under which mean motion resonances can be broken are not well understood. In this work, we derive a simple analytic criterion that elucidates the relationship among the physical parameters of the system, and find the conditions necessary to drive planets out of resonance. Subsequently, we confirm our findings with numerical integrations carried out in the perturbative regime, as well as direct N-body simulations. Our calculations suggest that turbulent resonance disruption depends most sensitively on the planet-star mass ratio. Specifically, for a disk with properties comparable to the early solar nebula with $\alpha=0.01$, only planet pairs with cumulative mass ratios smaller than $(m_1+m_2)/M\lesssim10^{-5}\sim3M_{\oplus}/M_{\odot}$ are susceptible to breaking resonance at semi-major axis of order $a\sim0.1\,$AU. Although turbulence can sometimes compromise resonant pairs, an additional mechanism (such as suppression of resonance capture probability through disk eccentricity) is required to adequately explain the largely non-resonant orbital architectures of extrasolar planetary systems.

Mon, 30 Jan 2017
15/41

Comments: 12 pages, 6 figures, accepted to AJ

# The structure of invariant tori in a 3D galactic potential [CL]

We study in detail the structure of phase space in the neighborhood of stable periodic orbits in a rotating 3D potential of galactic type. We have used the color and rotation method to investigate the properties of the invariant tori in the 4D spaces of section. We compare our results with those of previous works and we describe the morphology of the rotational, as well as of the tube tori in the 4D space. We find sticky chaotic orbits in the immediate neighborhood of sets of invariant tori surrounding 3D stable periodic orbits. Particularly useful for galactic dynamics is the behavior of chaotic orbits trapped for long time between 4D invariant tori. We find that they support during this time the same structure as the quasi-periodic orbits around the stable periodic orbits, contributing however to a local increase of the dispersion of velocities. Finally we find that the tube tori do not appear in the 3D projections of the spaces of section in the axisymmetric Hamiltonian we examined.

M. Katsanikas and P. Patsis
Mon, 9 Jan 17
21/52

Comments: 26 pages, 34 figures, accepted for publication in the International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos

# Chains of rotational tori and filamentary structures close to high multiplicity periodic orbits in a 3D galactic potential [CL]

This paper discusses phase space structures encountered in the neighborhood of periodic orbits with high order multiplicity in a 3D autonomous Hamiltonian system with a potential of galactic type. We consider 4D spaces of section and we use the method of color and rotation [Patsis and Zachilas 1994] in order to visualize them. As examples we use the case of two orbits, one 2-periodic and one 7-periodic. We investigate the structure of multiple tori around them in the 4D surface of section and in addition we study the orbital behavior in the neighborhood of the corresponding simple unstable periodic orbits. By considering initially a few consequents in the neighborhood of the orbits in both cases we find a structure in the space of section, which is in direct correspondence with what is observed in a resonance zone of a 2D autonomous Hamiltonian system. However, in our 3D case we have instead of stability islands rotational tori, while the chaotic zone connecting the points of the unstable periodic orbit is replaced by filaments extending in 4D following a smooth color variation. For more intersections, the consequents of the orbit which started in the neighborhood of the unstable periodic orbit, diffuse in phase space and form a cloud that occupies a large volume surrounding the region containing the rotational tori. In this cloud the colors of the points are mixed. The same structures have been observed in the neighborhood of all m-periodic orbits we have examined in the system. This indicates a generic behavior.

M. Katsanikas, P. Patsis and A. Pinotsis
Mon, 9 Jan 17
26/52

Comments: 12 pages,22 figures, Accepted for publication in the International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos

# The structure and evolution of confined tori near a Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation [CL]

We study the orbital behavior at the neighborhood of complex unstable periodic orbits in a 3D autonomous Hamiltonian system of galactic type. At a transition of a family of periodic orbits from stability to complex instability (also known as Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation) the four eigenvalues of the stable periodic orbits move out of the unit circle. Then the periodic orbits become complex unstable. In this paper we first integrate initial conditions close to the ones of a complex unstable periodic orbit, which is close to the transition point. Then, we plot the consequents of the corresponding orbit in a 4D surface of section. To visualize this surface of section we use the method of color and rotation [Patsis and Zachilas 1994]. We find that the consequents are contained in 2D “confined tori”. Then, we investigate the structure of the phase space in the neighborhood of complex unstable periodic orbits, which are further away from the transition point. In these cases we observe clouds of points in the 4D surfaces of section. The transition between the two types of orbital behavior is abrupt.

M. Katsanikas, P. Patsis and G. Contopoulos
Mon, 9 Jan 17
42/52

Comments: 10 pages, 14 figures, accepted for publication in the International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos

# Instabilities and stickiness in a 3D rotating galactic potential [CL]

We study the dynamics in the neighborhood of simple and double unstable periodic orbits in a rotating 3D autonomous Hamiltonian system of galactic type. In order to visualize the four dimensional spaces of section we use the method of color and rotation. We investigate the structure of the invariant manifolds that we found in the neighborhood of simple and double unstable periodic orbits in the 4D spaces of section. We consider orbits in the neighborhood of the families x1v2, belonging to the x1 tree, and the z-axis (the rotational axis of our system). Close to the transition points from stability to simple instability, in the neighborhood of the bifurcated simple unstable x1v2 periodic orbits we encounter the phenomenon of stickiness as the asymptotic curves of the unstable manifold surround regions of the phase space occupied by rotational tori existing in the region. For larger energies, away from the bifurcating point, the consequents of the chaotic orbits form clouds of points with mixing of color in their 4D representations. In the case of double instability, close to x1v2 orbits, we find clouds of points in the four dimensional spaces of section. However, in some cases of double unstable periodic orbits belonging to the z-axis family we can visualize the associated unstable eigensurface. Chaotic orbits close to the periodic orbit remain sticky to this surface for long times (of the order of a Hubble time or more). Among the orbits we studied we found those close to the double unstable orbits of the x1v2 family having the largest diffusion speed.

M. Katsanikas, P. Patsis and G. Contopoulos
Mon, 9 Jan 17
44/52

Comments: 29pages, 25 figures, accepted for publication in the International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos

# Dynamical models and the onset of chaos in space debris [EPA]

The increasing threat raised by space debris led to the development of different mathematical models and approaches to investigate the dynamics of small particles orbiting around the Earth. Such models and methods strongly depend on the altitude of the objects above Earth’s surface, since the strength of the different forces acting on an Earth orbiting object (geopotential, atmospheric drag, lunar and solar attractions, solar radiation pressure, etc.) varies with the altitude of the debris.
In this review, our focus is on presenting different analytical and numerical approaches employed in modern studies of the space debris problem. We start by considering a model including the geopotential, solar and lunar gravitational forces and the solar radiation pressure. We summarize the equations of motion using different formalisms: Cartesian coordinates, Hamiltonian formulation using Delaunay and epicyclic variables, Milankovitch elements. Some of these methods lead in a straightforward way to the analysis of resonant motions. In particular, we review results found recently about the dynamics near tesseral, secular and semi-secular resonances.
As an application of the above methods, we proceed to analyze a timely subject namely the possible causes for the onset of chaos in space debris dynamics. Precisely, we discuss the phenomenon of overlapping of resonances, the effect of a large area-to-mass ratio, the influence of lunisolar secular resonances.
We conclude with a short discussion about the effect of the dissipation due to the atmospheric drag and we provide a list of minor effects, which could influence the dynamics of space debris.

A. Celletti, C. Efthymiopoulos, F. Gachet, et. al.
Fri, 30 Dec 16
39/64