Unstable standard candles. Periodic light curve modulation in fundamental mode classical Cepheids [SSA]


We report the discovery of periodic modulation of pulsation in 51 fundamental mode classical Cepheids of the Magellanic Clouds observed by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Although the overall incidence rate is very low, about 1 per cent in each of the Magellanic Clouds, in the case of the SMC and pulsation periods between 12 and 16d the incidence rate is nearly 40 per cent. On the other hand, in the LMC the highest incidence rate is 5 per cent for pulsation periods between 8 and 14d, and the overall amplitude of the effect is smaller. It indicates that the phenomenon is metallicity dependent. Typical modulation periods are between 70 and 300d. In nearly all stars the mean brightness is modulated, which, in principle, may influence the use of classical Cepheids for distance determination. Fortunately, the modulation of mean brightness does not exceed 0.01 mag in all but one star. Also, the effect averages out in typical observations spanning a long time base. Consequently, the effect of modulation on the determination of the distance moduli is negligible. The relative modulation amplitude of the fundamental mode is also low and, with one exception, it does not exceed 6 per cent. The origin of the modulation is unknown. We draw a hypothesis that the modulation is caused by the 2:1 resonance between the fundamental mode and the second overtone that shapes the famous Hertzsprung bump progression.

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R. Smolec
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: 13 pages, 14 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS


One-electron atoms in screened modified gravity [CEA]


In a large class of scalar-tensor theories that are potential candidates for dark energy, a non-minimal coupling between the scalar and the photon is possible. The presence of such an interaction grants us the exciting prospect of directly observing dark sector phenomenology in the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper investigates the behavior of one-electron atoms in this class of modified gravity models, exploring their viability as probes of deviations from general relativity in both laboratory and astrophysical settings. Building heavily on earlier studies, our main contribution is threefold: a thorough analysis finds additional fine structure corrections previously unaccounted for, which now predict a contribution to the Lamb shift larger by nearly four orders of magnitude. Secondly, we include the effects of the nuclear magnetic moment, allowing for the study of hyperfine structure and the 21 cm line, which hitherto have been unexplored in this context. Finally, we also examine how a background scalar leads to equivalence principle violations.

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L. Wong and A. Davis
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: 10 pages, 2 figures. Submitted to PRD

Primordial anisotropies from cosmic strings during inflation [CEA]


In this work we study the imprints of a primordial cosmic string on inflationary power spectrum. Cosmic string induces two distinct contributions on curvature perturbations power spectrum. The first type of correction respects the translation invariance while violating isotropy. This generates quadrupolar statistical anisotropy in CMB maps which is constrained by the Planck data. The second contribution breaks both homogeneity and isotropy, generating a dipolar power asymmetry in variance of temperature fluctuations with its amplitude falling on small scales. We show that the strongest constraint on the tension of string is obtained from the quadrupolar anisotropy and argue that the mass scale of underlying theory responsible for the formation of string can not be much higher than the GUT scale. The predictions of string for the diagonal and off-diagonal components of CMB angular power spectrum are presented.

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S. Jazayeri, A. Sadr and H. Firouzjahi
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: 25 pages, 6 figures

Constraining holographic cosmology using Planck data [CEA]


Holographic cosmology offers a novel framework for describing the very early Universe in which cosmological predictions are expressed in terms of the observables of a three dimensional quantum field theory (QFT). This framework includes conventional slow-roll inflation, which is described in terms of a strongly coupled QFT, but it also allows for qualitatively new models for the very early Universe, where the dual QFT may be weakly coupled. The new models describe a universe which is non-geometric at early times. While standard slow-roll inflation leads to a (near-)power-law primordial power spectrum, perturbative superrenormalizable QFT’s yield a new holographic spectral shape. Here, we compare the two predictions against cosmological observations. We use CosmoMC to determine the best fit parameters, and MultiNest for Bayesian Evidence, comparing the likelihoods. We find that the dual QFT should be non-perturbative at the very low multipoles ($l \lesssim 30$), while for higher multipoles ($l \gtrsim 30$) the new holographic model, based on perturbative QFT, fits the data just as well as the standard power-law spectrum assumed in $\Lambda$CDM cosmology. This finding opens the door to applications of non-perturbative QFT techniques, such as lattice simulations, to observational cosmology on gigaparsec scales and beyond.

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N. Afshordi, E. Gould and K. Skenderis
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: 25 pages, 10 figures

A cross-correlation-based estimate of the galaxy luminosity function [CEA]


We extend existing methods for using cross-correlations to derive redshift distributions for photometric galaxies, without using photometric redshifts. The model presented in this paper simultaneously yields highly accurate and unbiased redshift distributions and, for the first time, redshift-dependent luminosity functions, using only clustering information and the apparent magnitudes of the galaxies as input. In contrast to many existing techniques for recovering unbiased redshift distributions, the output of our method is not degenerate with the galaxy bias b(z), which is achieved by modelling the shape of the luminosity bias. We successfully apply our method to a mock galaxy survey and discuss the potential application of our model to real data.

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M. Daalen and M. White
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures. Submitted to MNRAS

Recommendations of the LHC Dark Matter Working Group: Comparing LHC searches for heavy mediators of dark matter production in visible and invisible decay channels [CL]


Weakly-coupled TeV-scale particles may mediate the interactions between normal matter and dark matter. If so, the LHC would produce dark matter through these mediators, leading to the familiar ‘mono-X’ search signatures, but the mediators would also produce signals without missing momentum via the same vertices involved in their production. This document from the LHC Dark Matter Working Group suggests how to compare searches for these two types of signals in case of vector and axial-vector mediators, based on a workshop that took place on September 19/20, 2016 and subsequent discussions. These suggestions include how to extend the spin-1 mediated simplified models already in widespread use to include lepton couplings. This document also provides analytic calculations of the relic density in the simplified models and reports an issue that arose when ATLAS and CMS first began to use preliminary numerical calculations of the dark matter relic density in these models.

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A. Albert, M. Backovic, A. Boveia, et. al.
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: 19 pages, 4 figures

Pulsar Timing Constraints on Physics Beyond the Standard Model [CL]


We argue that massive quantum fields source low-frequency long-wavelength metric fluctuations through the quantum fluctuations of their stress-energy, given reasonable assumptions about the analytic structure of its correlators. This can be traced back to the non-local nature of the gauge symmetry in General Relativity, which prevents an efficient screening of UV scales (what we call the cosmological non-constant problem). We define a covariant and gauge-invariant observable which probes line-of-sight spacetime curvature fluctuations on an observer’s past lightcone, and show that current pulsar timing data constrains any massive particle to $m\lesssim 600$ GeV. This astrophysical bound severely limits the possibilities for physics beyond the standard model below the scale of quantum gravity.

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N. Afshordi, H. Kim and E. Nelson
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures; comments welcome

An extension of the Planck galaxy cluster catalogue [CEA]


We present a catalogue of galaxy clusters detected in the Planck all-sky Compton parameter maps and identified using data from the WISE and SDSS surveys. The catalogue comprises about 3000 clusters in the SDSS fields. We expect the completeness of this catalogue to be high for clusters with masses larger than M_500 =~ 3×10^14 Msun, located at redshifts z<0.7. At redshifts above z=~0.4, the catalogue contains approximately an order of magnitude more clusters than the 2nd Planck Catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources in the same fields of the sky. This catalogue can be used for identification of massive galaxy clusters in future large cluster surveys, such as the SRG/eROSITA all-sky X-ray survey.

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R. Burenin
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in Astronomy Letters

Directional Sensitivity In Light-Mass Dark Matter Searches With Single-Electron Resolution Ionization Detectors [CL]


We present a method for using solid state detectors with directional sensitivity to dark matter interactions to detect low-mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) originating from galactic sources. In spite of a large body of literature for high-mass WIMP detectors with directional sensitivity, there is no available technique to cover WIMPs in the mass range <1 GeV. We argue that single-electron resolution semiconductor detectors allow for directional sensitivity once properly calibrated. We examine commonly used semiconductor material response to these low-mass WIMP interactions.

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F. Kadribasic, N. Mirabolfathi, K. Nordlund, et. al.
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: N/A

Velocity-Density Correlations from the cosmicflows-3 Distance Catalog and the 2MASS Redshift Survey [CEA]


The peculiar velocity of a mass tracer is on average aligned with the dipole modulation of the surrounding mass density field. We present a first measurement of the correlation between radial peculiar velocities of objects in the cosmicflows-3 catalog and the dipole moment of the 2MRS galaxy distribution in concentric spherical shells centered on these objects. Limiting the analysis to cosmicflows-3 objects with distances of $100 \rm Mpc h^{-1}$, the correlation function is detected at a confidence level $> 4\sigma$. The measurement is found consistent with the standard $\Lambda$CDM model at $< 1.7\sigma$ level. We formally derive the constraints $0.32<\Omega^{0.55}\sigma_8<0.48$ ($68\% $ confidence level) or equivalently $0.34<\Omega^{0.55}/b<0.52$, where $b$ is the galaxy bias factor. Deeper and improved peculiar velocity catalogs will substantially reduce the uncertainties, allowing tighter constraints from this type of correlations.

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A. Nusser
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: 10 pages, 7 figures

Accurate recovery of HI velocity dispersion from radio interferometers [GA]


Gas velocity dispersion measures the amount of disordered motions of a rotating disk. Accurate estimates of this parameter are of the utmost importance because it is directly linked to disk stability and star formation. A global measure of the gas velocity dispersion can be inferred from the width of the atomic hydrogen HI 21 cm line. We explore how several systematic effects involved in the production of HI cubes affect the estimate of HI velocity dispersion. We do so by comparing the HI velocity dispersion derived from different types of data cubes provided by The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS). We find that residual-scaled cubes best recover the HI velocity dispersion, independent of the weighting scheme used and for a large range of signal-to-noise ratio. For HI observations where the dirty beam is substantially different from a Gaussian, the velocity dispersion values are overestimated unless the cubes are cleaned close to (e.g., ~1.5 times) the noise level.

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R. Ianjamasimanana, W. Blok and G. Heald
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal, 14 pages, 12 Figures, 2 Tables

Simulations of the Galaxy Cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301 I: Thermal Model and Shock Properties [CEA]


The giant radio relic in CIZA J2242.8+5301 is likely evidence of a Mpc sized shock in a massive merging galaxy cluster. However, the exact shock properties are still not clearly determined. In particular, the Mach number derived from the integrated radio spectrum exceeds the Mach number derived from the X-ray temperature jump by a factor of two. We present here a numerical study, aiming for a model that is consistent with the majority of observations of this galaxy cluster. We first show that in the northern shock upstream X-ray temperature and radio data are consistent with each other. We then derive progenitor masses for the system using standard density profiles, X-ray properties and the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. We find a class of models that is roughly consistent with weak lensing data, radio data and some of the X-ray data. Assuming a cool-core versus non-cool-core merger, we find a fiducial model with a total mass of $1.6 \times 10^{15}\,M_\odot$, a mass ratio of 1.76 and a Mach number that is consistent with estimates from the radio spectrum. We are not able to match X-ray derived Mach numbers, because even low mass models over-predict the X-ray derived shock speeds. We argue that deep X-ray observations of CIZA J2242.8+5301 will be able to test our model and potentially reconcile X-ray and radio derived Mach numbers in relics.

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J. Donnert, A. Beck, K. Dolag, et. al.
Fri, 17 Mar 17

Comments: 19 pages, 19 figures

Growth and dissolution of spherical density enhancements in SCDEW cosmologies [CEA]


Strongly Coupled Dark Energy plus Warm dark matter (SCDEW) cosmologies are based on the finding of a conformally invariant (CI) attractor solution during the early radiative expansion, requiring then the stationary presence of $\sim 1\, \%$ of coupled-DM and DE, since inflationary reheating. In these models, coupled-DM fluctuations, even in the early radiative expansion, grow up to non-linearity, as shown in a previous associated paper. Such early non-linear stages are modelized here through the evolution of a top-hat density enhancement. As expected, its radius $R$ increases up to a maximum and then starts to decrease. Virial balance is reached when the coupled-DM density contrast is just 25-26 and DM density enhancement is $\cal O$$(10\, \%)$ of total density. We show that this is not an equilibrium configuration, for a fluctuation of coupled-DM as, afterwards, $R$ restarts to increase, until the fluctuation dissolves. We estimate the duration of the whole process, from horizon crossing to dissolution, and find $z_{horizon}/z_{erasing} \sim 3 \times 10^4$. Therefore, only fluctuations entering the horizon at $z \lesssim 10^9$-$10^{10}$ are able to accrete WDM with mass $\sim 100\, $eV -as soon as it becomes non-relativistic- so avoiding full disruption. Accordingly, SCDEW cosmologies, whose WDM has mass $\sim 100\, $eV, can preserve primeval fluctuations down to stellar mass scale.

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S. Bonometto and R. Mainini
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 16 pages, 8 figures

Star formation, supernovae, iron, and $α$: consistent cosmic and Galactic histories [HEAP]


Recent versions of the observed cosmic star-formation history (SFH) have resolved an inconsistency between the SFH and the observed cosmic stellar mass density history. Here, we show that the same SFH revision scales up by a factor $\sim 2$ the delay-time distribution (DTD) of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), as determined from the observed volumetric SN Ia rate history, and thus brings it into line with other field-galaxy SN Ia DTD measurements. The revised-SFH-based DTD has a $t^{-1.1 \pm 0.1}$ form and a Hubble-time-integrated SN Ia production efficiency of $N/M_\star=1.25\pm 0.10$ SNe Ia per $1000~{\rm M_\odot}$ of formed stellar mass. Using these revised histories and updated, purely empirical, iron yields of the various SN types, we rederive the cosmic iron accumulation history. Core-collapse SNe and SNe Ia have contributed about equally to the total mass of iron in the Universe today, as deduced also for the Sun. We find the track of the average cosmic gas element in the [$\alpha$/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] abundance-ratio plane, as well as the track for gas in galaxy clusters, which have a higher DTD and have had a distinct, burst-like, SFH. Our cosmic $[\alpha$/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] track is broadly similar to the observed main locus of Galactic stars in this plane, indicating a Milky Way (MW) SFH similar in form to the cosmic one, and we find a MW SFH that makes the track closely match the stellar locus. The cluster DTD with a short-burst SFH at $z=3$ produces a track that matches well the observed `high-$\alpha$’ locus of MW stars, suggesting the halo/thick-disk population has had a galaxy-cluster-like formation history.

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D. Maoz and O. Graur
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: Submitted to MNRAS, comments welcome

When the Universe Expands Too Fast: Relentless Dark Matter [CL]


We consider a modification to the standard cosmological history consisting of introducing a new species $\phi$ whose energy density red-shifts with the scale factor $a$ like $\rho_\phi \propto a^{-(4+n)}$. For $n>0$, such a red-shift is faster than radiation, hence the new species dominates the energy budget of the universe at early times while it is completely negligible at late times. If equality with the radiation energy density is achieved at low enough temperatures, dark matter can be produced as a thermal relic during the new cosmological phase. Dark matter freeze-out then occurs at higher temperatures compared to the standard case, implying that reproducing the observed abundance requires significantly larger annihilation rates. Here, we point out a completely new phenomenon, which we refer to as $\textit{relentless}$ dark matter: for large enough $n$, unlike the standard case where annihilation ends shortly after the departure from thermal equilibrium, dark matter particles keep annihilating long after leaving chemical equilibrium, with a significant depletion of the final relic abundance. Relentless annihilation occurs for $n \geq 2$ and $n \geq 4$ for s-wave and p-wave annihilation, respectively, and it thus occurs in well motivated scenarios such as a quintessence with a kination phase. We discuss a few microscopic realizations for the new cosmological component and highlight the phenomenological consequences of our calculations for dark matter searches.

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F. DEramo, N. Fernandez and S. Profumo
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 14 pages, 9 figures

A search for sterile neutrinos with the latest cosmological observations [CEA]


We report the result of a search for sterile neutrinos with the latest cosmological observations. Both cases of massless and massive sterile neutrinos are considered in the $\Lambda$CDM cosmology. The cosmological observations used in this work include the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the Hubble constant direct measurement data, the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts data, the Planck lensing data, and the cosmic shear data. We find that the current observational data give a hint of the existence of massless sterile neutrino (as dark radiation) at the 1.44$\sigma$ level, and the consideration of an extra massless sterile neutrino can indeed relieve the tension between observations and improve the cosmological fit. For the case of massive sterile neutrino, the observations give a rather tight upper limit on the mass, which implies that actually a massless sterile neutrino is more favored. Our result is consistent with the recent result of neutrino oscillation experiment done by the Daya Bay and MINOS collaborations, as well as the recent result of cosmic ray experiment done by the IceCube collaboration.

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L. Feng, J. Zhang and X. Zhang
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 15 pages, 4 figures

MC$^2$: Multi-wavelength and dynamical analysis of the merging galaxy cluster ZwCl 0008.8+5215: An older and less massive Bullet Cluster [GA]


We analyze a rich dataset including Subaru/SuprimeCam, HST/ACS and WFC3, Keck/DEIMOS, Chandra/ACIS-I, and JVLA/C and D array for the merging galaxy cluster ZwCl 0008.8+5215. With a joint Subaru/HST weak gravitational lensing analysis, we identify two dominant subclusters and estimate the masses to be M$_{200}=\text{5.7}^{+\text{2.8}}_{-\text{1.8}}\times\text{10}^{\text{14}}\,\text{M}_{\odot}$ and 1.2$^{+\text{1.4}}_{-\text{0.6}}\times10^{14}$ M$_{\odot}$. We estimate the projected separation between the two subclusters to be 924$^{+\text{243}}_{-\text{206}}$ kpc. We perform a clustering analysis on confirmed cluster member galaxies and estimate the line of sight velocity difference between the two subclusters to be 92$\pm$164 km s$^{-\text{1}}$. We further motivate, discuss, and analyze the merger scenario through an analysis of the 42 ks of Chandra/ACIS-I and JVLA/C and D polarization data. The X-ray surface brightness profile reveals a remnant core reminiscent of the Bullet Cluster. The X-ray luminosity in the 0.5-7.0 keV band is 1.7$\pm$0.1$\times$10$^{\text{44}}$ erg s$^{-\text{1}}$ and the X-ray temperature is 4.90$\pm$0.13 keV. The radio relics are polarized up to 40$\%$. We implement a Monte Carlo dynamical analysis and estimate the merger velocity at pericenter to be 1800$^{+\text{400}}_{-\text{300}}$ km s$^{-\text{1}}$. ZwCl 0008.8+5215 is a low-mass version of the Bullet Cluster and therefore may prove useful in testing alternative models of dark matter. We do not find significant offsets between dark matter and galaxies, as the uncertainties are large with the current lensing data. Furthermore, in the east, the BCG is offset from other luminous cluster galaxies, which poses a puzzle for defining dark matter — galaxy offsets.

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N. Golovich, R. Weeren, W. Dawson, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 22 pages, 19 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal on March 13, 2017

Comment on "Strong Evidence for the Normal Neutrino Hierarchy" [CEA]


In the preprint arxiv:1703.03425 “strong evidence” for the normal neutrino mass ordering is claimed. The authors obtain Bayesian odds of 42:1 in favour of the normal ordering. Their conclusion is based on adopting a flat logarithmic prior for the three neutrino masses. Such an assumption favours a hierarchical spectrum for the masses, which is much easier to accommodate for the normal mass ordering, and hence their prior assumption makes the inverted ordering much less likely a priori. We argue that the claimed “evidence” for normal ordering is almost entirely driven by the adopted prior and not due to the data itself.

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T. Schwetz, K. Freese, M. Gerbino, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 2 pages, no figures, comment on arXiv:1703.03425

A general explanation on the correlation of dark matter halo spin with the large scale environment [CEA]


Both simulations and observations have found that the spin of halo/galaxy is correlated with the large scale environment, and particularly the spin of halo flips in filament. A consistent picture of halo spin evolution in different environments is still lacked. Using N-body simulation we find that halo spin with its environment evolves continuously from sheet to cluster, and the flip of halo spin happens both in filament and nodes. For the flip in filament can be explained by halo formation time and the migrating time when its environment changes from sheet to filament. For low-mass haloes, they form first in sheets and migrate into filaments later, so their mass and spin growth inside filament are lower, and the original spin is still parallel to filament. For massive haloes, they migrate into filaments first, and most of their mass and spin growth are obtained in filaments, so the resulted spin is perpendicular to filament. Our results well explain the overall evolution of cosmic web in the cold dark matter model and can be tested using high-redshift data. The scenario can also be tested against alternative models of dark matter, such as warm/hot dark matter, where the structure formation will proceed in a different way.

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P. Wang and X. Kang
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures, Accepted by MNRAS Letters

Constraints on long-lived electrically charged massive particles from anomalous strong lens systems [CEA]


We investigate anomalous strong lens systems, particularly the effects of weak lensing by structures in the line of sight, in models with long-lived electrically charged massive particles (CHAMPs). In such models, matter density perturbations are suppressed through the acoustic damping and the flux ratio of lens systems are impacted, from which we can constrain the nature of CHAMPs. For this purpose, first we perform $N$-body simulations and develop a fitting formula to obtain non-linear matter power spectra in models where cold neutral dark matter and CHAMPs coexist in the early Universe. By using the observed anomalous quadruple lens samples, we obtained the constraints on the lifetime ($\tau_{\rm Ch}$) and the mass density fraction ($r_{\rm Ch}$) of CHAMPs. We show that, for $r_{\rm Ch}=1$, the lifetime is bounded as $\tau_{\rm Ch} < 0.96\,$yr (95% confidence level), while a longer lifetime $\tau_{\rm Ch} = 10\,$yr is allowed when $r_{\rm Ch} < 0.5$ at the 95% confidence level. Implications of our result for particle physics models are also discussed.

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A. Kamada, K. Inoue, K. Kohri, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 20 pages, 6 figures

$\textit{"Super-deblended"}$ Dust Emission in Galaxies: I. the GOODS-North Catalog and the Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density out to Redshift 6 [GA]


We present a new technique to obtain multi-wavelength $\textit{“super-deblended”}$ photometry in highly confused images, that we apply here in the GOODS-North field to Herschel and (sub-)millimeter data sets. The key novelties of the method are two: first, starting from a common large prior database of deep 24 $\mu$m and VLA 20 cm detections, an $\textit{active}$ selection of $\textit{useful}$ fitting priors is performed independently at each frequency band and moving from less to more confused bands. Exploiting knowledge of redshift and all available photometry for each source up to the dataset under exam, we identify $\textit{hopelessly faint}$ priors that we remove from the fitting pool. This approach critically reduces blending degeneracies and allows reliable photometry of galaxies in FIR+mm bands. Second, we obtain well-behaved $\textit{quasi-Gaussian}$ flux uncertainties, individually tailored to all fitted priors in each band. This is done exploiting extensive simulations calibrating the conversion of formal fitting uncertainties onto real uncertainties, depending on quantities directly measurable in the observations. Our catalog achieves deeper detection limits with high fidelity measurements and uncertainties at far-infrared to millimeter bands. We identify 71 $z \ge 3$ galaxies with reliable FIR+mm detection and study their location in stellar mass–star formation rate diagrams. We present new constraints on the cosmic star formation rate density at $3 < z < 6$ finding significant contribution from $z \ge 3$ dusty galaxies that are missed by optical to near-infrared color selections. The photometric catalog is released publicly (upon acceptance of the paper).

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D. Liu, E. Daddi, M. Dickinson, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: Submitted to ApJ

Cosmic Voids in Evolving Dark Sector Cosmologies: the Low Redshift Universe [CEA]


We present a comparison of void properties between the standard model of cosmology, $\Lambda$ Cold Dark Matter ($\Lambda$CDM), and two alternative cosmological models with evolving and interacting dark sectors: a quintessence model ($\phi$CDM) and a Coupled Dark Matter-Dark Energy (CDE) model. Using $N$-body simulations of these models, we derive several measures of void statistics and properties, including distributions of void volume, ellipticity, prolateness, and average density. We find that the volume distribution derived from the CDE simulation deviates from the volume distribution derived from the $\Lambda$CDM simulation in the present-day universe, suggesting that the presence of a coupled dark sector could be observable through this statistic. We also find that the distributions of void ellipticity and prolateness are practically indistinguishable among the three models over the redshift range $z=0.0-1.0$, indicating that simple void shape statistics are insensitive to small changes in dark sector physics. Interestingly, we find that the distributions of average void density measured in each of the three simulations are distinct from each other. In particular, voids on average tend to be emptiest under a quintessence model, and densest under the $\Lambda$CDM model. Our results suggest that it is the scalar field present in both alternative models that causes emptier voids to form, while the coupling of the dark sector mitigates this effect by slowing down the evacuation of matter from voids.

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E. Adermann, P. Elahi, G. Lewis, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 16 pages, 10 figures, accepted by MNRAS

First constraints on fuzzy dark matter from Lyman-$α$ forest data and hydrodynamical simulations [CEA]


We present constraints on the masses of extremely light bosons dubbed fuzzy dark matter from Lyman-$\alpha$ forest data. Extremely light bosons with a De Broglie wavelength of $\sim 1$ kpc have been suggested as dark matter candidates that may resolve some of the current small scale problems of the cold dark matter model. For the first time we use hydrodynamical simulations to model the Lyman-$\alpha$ flux power spectrum in these models and compare with the observed flux power spectrum from two different data sets: the XQ-100 and HIRES/MIKE quasar spectra samples. After marginalization over nuisance and physical parameters and with conservative assumptions for the thermal history of the IGM that allow for jumps in the temperature of up to $5000\rm\,K$, XQ-100 provides a lower limit of $7.1\times 10^{-22}$ eV, HIRES/MIKE returns a stronger limit of $14.3\times 10^{-22}$ eV, while the combination of both data sets results in a limit of $20\times 10^{-22}$ eV (2$\sigma$ C.L.). The limits for the analysis of the combined data sets increases to $37.5\times 10^{-22}$ eV (2$\sigma$ C.L.) when a smoother thermal history is assumed where the temperature of the IGM evolves as a power-law in redshift. Light boson masses in the range $1-10 \times10^{-22}$ eV are ruled out at high significance by our analysis, casting strong doubts on suggestions of significant astrophysical implications of FDM, in particular for solving the “small scale crisis” of cold dark matter models.

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V. Irsic, M. Viel, M. Haehnelt, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 7 pages, 3 figures

A Preferred Mass Range for Primordial Black Hole Formation and Black Holes as Dark Matter Revisited [CEA]


Bird, et. al. and Sasaki, et. al. have recently proposed the intriguing possibility that the black holes detected by LIGO could be all or part of the cosmological dark matter. This offers an alternative to WIMPs and axions, where dark matter could be comprised solely of Standard Model particles. The mass range lies within an observationally viable window and the predicted merger rate can be tested by future LIGO observations. In this paper, we argue that non-thermal histories favor production of black holes near this mass range — with heavier ones unlikely to form in the early universe and lighter black holes being diluted through late-time entropy production. We discuss how this prediction depends on the primordial power spectrum, the likelihood of black hole formation, and the underlying model parameters. We find the prediction for the preferred mass range to be rather robust assuming a blue spectral index less than two. We consider the resulting relic density in black holes, and using recent observational constraints, establish whether they could account for all of the dark matter today.

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J. Georg and S. Watson
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures

Early Universe Higgs dynamics in the presence of the Higgs-inflaton and non-minimal Higgs-gravity couplings [CL]


Apparent metastability of the electroweak vacuum poses a number of cosmological questions. These concern evolution of the Higgs field to the current vacuum, and its stability during and after inflation. Higgs-inflaton and non-minimal Higgs-gravity interactions can make a crucial impact on these considerations potentially solving the problems. In this work, we allow for these couplings to be present simultaneously and study their interplay. We find that different combinations of the Higgs-inflaton and non-minimal Higgs-gravity couplings induce effective Higgs mass during and after inflation. This crucially affects the Higgs stability considerations during preheating. In particular, a wide range of the couplings leading to stable solutions becomes allowed.

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Y. Ema, M. Karciauskas, O. Lebedev, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 17 pages, 5 figures

The Search for Multiple Populations in Magellanic Cloud Clusters III: No evidence for Multiple Populations in the SMC cluster NGC 419 [GA]


We present the third paper about our ongoing HST survey for the search for multiple stellar populations (MPs) within Magellanic Cloud clusters. We report here the analysis of NGC 419, a $\sim 1.5$ Gyr old, massive ($\gtrsim 2 \times 10^5 \, {\rm M_{\odot}}$) star cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). By comparing our photometric data with stellar isochrones, we set a limit on [N/Fe] enhancement of $\lesssim$+0.5 dex and hence we find that no MPs are detected in this cluster. This is surprising because, in the first two papers of this series, we found evidence for MPs in 4 other SMC clusters (NGC 121; Lindsay 1, NGC 339, NGC 416), aged from 6 Gyr up to $\sim 10-11$ Gyr. This finding raises the question whether age could play a major role in the MPs phenomenon. Additionally, our results appear to exclude mass or environment as the only key factors regulating the existence of a chemical enrichment, since all clusters studied so far in this survey are equally massive ($\sim 1-2 \times 10^5 \, {\rm M_{\odot}}$) and no particular patterns are found when looking at their spatial distribution in the SMC.

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S. Martocchia, N. Bastian, C. Usher, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: MNRAS, accepted. 9 pages, 7 figures

Strongly Coupled Dark Energy with Warm dark matter vs. LCDM [CEA]


Cosmologies including strongly Coupled (SC) Dark Energy (DE) and Warm dark matter (SCDEW) are based on a conformally invariant (CI) attractor solution modifying the early radiative expansion. Then, aside of radiation, a kinetic field $\Phi$ and a DM component account for a stationary fraction, $\sim 1\, \%$, of the total energy. SCDEW models alleviate conceptual problem of LCDM, while recovering its results, and even easing some LCDM problems, below the average galaxy scale. The CI expansion begins at the inflation end, when $\Phi$ (future DE) possibly plays a role in reheating, and ends at the Higgs’ scale. Afterwards, a number of viable options is open, allowing for the transition from the CI expansion to the present Universe. In this paper: (i) We show how the attractor is recovered when the spin degrees of freedom decreases. (ii) We perform a detailed comparison of CMB anisotropy and polarization spectra for SCDEW and LCDM, including tensor components, finding negligible discrepancies. (iii) Linear spectra exhibit a greater parameter dependence at large $k$’s, but are still consistent with data for suitable parameter choices. (iv) We also compare previous simulation results with fresh data on galaxy concentration. Finally, (v) we outline numerical difficulties at high $k$. This motivates a second related paper, where such problems are treated in a quantitative way.

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S. Bonometto, M. Mezzetti and R. Mainini
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 23 pages, 10 figures

Baryogenesis at a Lepton-Number-Breaking Phase Transition [CL]


We study a scenario in which the baryon asymmetry of the universe arises from a cosmological phase transition where lepton-number is spontaneously broken. If the phase transition is first order, a lepton-number asymmetry can arise at the bubble wall, through dynamics similar to electroweak baryogenesis, but involving right-handed neutrinos. In addition to the usual neutrinoless double beta decay in nuclear experiments, the model may be probed through a variety of “baryogenesis by-products,” which include a stochastic background of gravitational waves created by the colliding bubbles. Depending on the model, other aspects may include a network of topological defects that produce their own gravitational waves, additional contribution to dark radiation, and a light pseudo-Goldstone boson (majoron) as dark matter candidate.

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A. Long, A. Tesi and L. Wang
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 21 pages + 10 appendices & references, 3 figures

General dynamical properties of cosmological models with nonminimal kinetic coupling [CL]


We consider cosmological dynamics in the theory of gravity with the scalar field possessing the nonminimal kinetic coupling to curvature given as $\eta G^{\mu\nu}\phi_{,\mu}\phi_{,\nu}$, where $\eta$ is an arbitrary coupling parameter, and the scalar potential $V(\phi)$ which assumed to be as general as possible. With an appropriate dimensionless parameterization we represent the field equations as an autonomous dynamical system which contains ultimately only one arbitrary function $\chi (x)= 8 \pi G |\eta| V(x/\sqrt{8 \pi G})$. Then, assuming the rather general properties of $\chi(x)$, we analyze stationary points and their stability, as well as all possible asymptotical regimes of the dynamical system. It has been shown that for a broad class of $\chi(x)$ there exist attractors representing three accelerated regimes of the Universe evolution, including de Sitter expansion (or late-time inflation), the Little Rip scenario, and the Big Rip scenario. As the specific examples, we consider a power-law potential $V(\phi)=M^4(\phi/\phi_0)^\alpha$, Higgs-like potential $V(\phi)=\frac{\lambda}{4}(\phi^2-\phi_0^2)^2$, and exponential potential $V(\phi)=M^4 e^{-\phi/\phi_0}$.

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J. Matsumoto and S. Sushkov
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 26 pages, 3 figures, 3 tables

Redshift drift of gravitational lensing [CEA]


We investigate the effect of the redshift drift in strong gravitational lensing. The redshift drift produces a time variation of $i)$ the apparent position of a lensed source and $ii)$ the time delay among incoming signals from different images. We dub these effects as angular drift and time delay drift, respectively, and analyze their relevance in cosmology.

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O. Piattella and L. Giani
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 4 pages, 1 figure

The NuSTAR view of the true Type 2 Seyfert NGC3147 [GA]


We present the first NuSTAR observation of a ‘true’ Type 2 Seyfert galaxy. The 3-40 keV X-ray spectrum of NGC3147 is characterised by a simple power-law, with a standard {\Gamma}~1.7 and an iron emission line, with no need for any further component up to ~40 keV. These spectral properties, together with significant variability on time-scales as short as weeks (as shown in a 2014 Swift monitoring campaign), strongly support an unobscured line-of-sight for this source. An alternative scenario in terms of a Compton-thick source is strongly disfavoured, requiring an exceptional geometrical configuration, whereas a large fraction of the solid angle to the source is filled by a highly ionised gas, whose reprocessed emission would dominate the observed luminosity. Moreover, in this scenario the implied intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the source would be much larger than the value predicted by other luminosity proxies, like the [OIII]{\lambda}5007 emission line extinction-corrected luminosity. Therefore, we confirm with high confidence that NGC3147 is a true Type 2 Seyfert galaxy, intrinsically characterised by the absence of a BLR.

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S. Bianchi, A. Marinucci, G. Matt, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 5 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Detection of dust emission in multiple images of a normal galaxy at $z>4$ lensed by a Frontier Fields cluster [GA]


We directly detect dust emission in an optically-detected, multiply-imaged galaxy lensed by the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0717.5+3745. We detect two images of the same galaxy at 1.1mm with the AzTEC camera on the Large Millimeter Telescope leaving no ambiguity in the counterpart identification. This galaxy, MACS071_Az9, is at z>4 and the strong lensing model (mu=7.5) allows us to calculate an intrinsic IR luminosity of 9.7e10 Lsun and an obscured star formation rate of 14.6 +/- 4.5 Msun/yr. The unobscured star formation rate from the UV is only 4.1 +/- 0.3 Msun/yr which means the total star formation rate (18.7 +/- 4.5 Msun/yr) is dominated (75-80%) by the obscured component. With an intrinsic stellar mass of only 6.9e9Msun, MACS0717_Az9 is one of only a handful of z>4 galaxies at these lower masses that is detected in dust emission. This galaxy lies close to the estimated star formation sequence at this epoch. However, it does not lie on the dust obscuration relation (IRX-beta) for local starburst galaxies and is instead consistent with the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) attenuation law. This remarkable lower mass galaxy showing signs of both low metallicity and high dust content may challenge our picture of dust production in the early Universe.

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A. Pope, A. Montana, A. Battisti, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 12 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ

Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy Formation Simulation X. The small contribution of quasars to reionization [CEA]


Motivated by recent measurements of the number density of faint AGN at high redshift, we investigate the contribution of quasars to reionization by tracking the growth of central supermassive black holes in an update of the {\sc Meraxes} semi-analytic model. The model is calibrated against the observed stellar mass function at $z{\sim}0.6{-}7$, the black hole mass function at $z{\lesssim}0.5$, the global ionizing emissivity at $z{\sim}2{-}5$, and the Thomson scattering optical depth. The model reproduces a Magorrian relation in agreement with observations at $z{<}0.5$, and predicts a decreasing black hole mass towards higher redshifts at fixed total stellar mass. With the implementation of an opening angle of $80$ degrees for quasar radiation, corresponding to an observable fraction of ${\sim}23.4$ per cent due to obscuration by dust, the model is able to reproduce the observed quasar luminosity function at $z{\sim}0.6{-}6$. The stellar light from galaxies hosting faint AGN contributes a significant or dominant fraction of the UV flux. At high redshift, the model is consistent with the bright end quasar luminosity function and suggests that the recent faint $z{\sim}4$ AGN sample compiled by \citet{Giallongo2015} includes a significant fraction of stellar light. Direct application of this luminosity function to the calculation of AGN ionizing emissivity consequently overestimates the number of ionizing photons produced by quasars by a factor of 3 at $z{\sim}6$. We conclude that quasars are unlikely to make a significant contribution to reionization.

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Y. Qin, S. Mutch, G. Poole, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 20 pages, 11 figures, submitted to MNRAS, comments are welcome

Priors on the effective Dark Energy equation of state in scalar-tensor theories [CEA]


Constraining the Dark Energy (DE) equation of state, w, is one of the primary science goals of ongoing and future cosmological surveys. In practice, with imperfect data and incomplete redshift coverage, this requires making assumptions about the evolution of w with redshift z. These assumptions can be manifested in a choice of a specific parametric form, which can potentially bias the outcome, or else one can reconstruct w(z) non-parametrically, by specifying a prior covariance matrix that correlates values of w at different redshifts. In this work, we derive the theoretical prior covariance for the effective DE equation of state predicted by general scalar-tensor theories with second order equations of motion (Horndeski theories). This is achieved by generating a large ensemble of possible scalar-tensor theories using a Monte Carlo methodology, including the application of physical viability conditions. We also separately consider the special sub-case of the minimally coupled scalar field, or quintessence. The prior shows a preference for tracking behaviors in the most general case. Given the covariance matrix, theoretical priors on parameters of any specific parametrization of w(z) can also be readily derived by projection.

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M. Raveri, P. Bull, A. Silvestri, et. al.
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: 13 pages, 5 figures

Degeneracy in the spectrum and bispectrum among featured inflaton potentials [CEA]


We study the degeneracy of the primordial spectrum and bispectrum of the curvature perturbation in single field inflationary models with a class of features in the inflaton potential. The feature we consider is a discontinuous change in the shape of the potential and is controlled by a couple of parameters that describe the strength of the discontinuity and the change in the potential shape. This feature produces oscillations of the spectrum and bispectrum around the comoving scale $k=k_0$ that exits the horizon when the inflaton passes the discontinuity. We find that the effects on the spectrum and almost all configurations of the bispectrum including the squeezed limit depend on a single quantity which is a function of the two parameters defining the feature. This leads to a degeneracy, i.e. different features of the inflaton potential can produce the same observational effects. However, we find that the degeneracy in the bispectrum is removed at the equilateral limit around $k=k_0$. This can be used to discriminate different models which give the same spectrum.

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A. Cadavid, A. Romano and M. Sasaki
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: N/A

The igmspec Database of Public Spectra Probing the Intergalactic Medium [CEA]


We describe v02 of igmspec, a database of publically available ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectra that probe the intergalactic medium (IGM). This database, a child of the specdb repository in the specdb github organization, comprises 403277 unique sources and 434686 spectra obtained with the world’s greatest observatories. All of these data are distributed in a single ~25 GB HDF5 file maintained at the University of California Observatories and the University of California, Santa Cruz. The specdb software package includes Python scripts and modules for searching the source catalog and spectral datasets, and software links to the linetools package for spectral analysis. The repository also includes software to generate private spectral datasets that are compliant with International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) protocols and a Python-based interface for IVOA Simple Spectral Access queries. Future versions of igmspec will ingest other sources (e.g. gamma-ray burst afterglows) and other surveys as they become publicly available. The overall goal is to include every spectrum that effectively probes the IGM. Future databases of specdb may include publicly available galaxy spectra (exgalspec) and published supernovae spectra (snspec). The community is encouraged to join the effort on github: https://github.com/specdb

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J. Prochaska
Thu, 16 Mar 17

Comments: Accepted to Astronomy & Computing; 21 pages, 1 figure; join this https URL and clone this https URL

Massive Fields as Systematics for Single Field Inflation [CEA]


During inflation, massive fields can contribute to the power spectrum of curvature perturbation via a dimension-5 operator. This contribution can be considered as a bias for the program of using $n_s$ and $r$ to select inflation models. Even the dimension-5 operator is suppressed by $\Lambda = M_p$, there is still a significant shift on the $n_s$-$r$ diagram if the massive fields have $m\sim H$. On the other hand, if the heavy degree of freedom appear only at the same energy scale as the suppression scale of the dimension-5 operator, then significant shift on the $n_s$-$r$ diagram takes place at $m=\Lambda \sim 70H$, which is around the inflationary time-translation symmetry breaking scale. Hence, the systematics from massive fields pose a greater challenge for future high precision experiments for inflationary model selection. This result can be thought of as the impact of UV sensitivity to inflationary observables.

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H. Jiang and Y. Wang
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: 11 pages, 3 figures

Global constraints on absolute neutrino masses and their ordering [CL]


Within the standard three-neutrino framework, the absolute neutrino masses and their ordering (either normal, NO, or inverted, IO) are currently unknown. However, the combination of current data coming from oscillation experiments, neutrinoless double beta decay searches, and cosmological surveys, can provide interesting constraints for such unknowns in the sub-eV mass range, down to O(0.1) eV in some cases. We discuss current limits on absolute neutrino mass observables by performing a global data analysis, that includes the latest results from oscillation experiments, neutrinoless double beta decay bounds from the KamLAND-Zen experiment, and constraints from representative combinations of Planck measurements and other cosmological data sets. In general, NO appears to be somewhat favored with respect to IO at the level of ~2 sigma, mainly by neutrino oscillation data (especially atmospheric), corroborated by cosmological data in some cases. Detailed constraints are obtained via the chi^2 method, by expanding the parameter space either around separate minima in NO and IO, or around the absolute minimum in any ordering. Implications for upcoming oscillation and non-oscillation neutrino experiments, including beta-decay searches, are also discussed.

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F. Capozzi, E. Valentino, E. Lisi, et. al.
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: 17 pages, including 3 tables and 11 figures

Cosmological Implications of Nonlocal Gravity [CL]


We present extensions of the treatment contained in our recent paper on nonlocal Newtonian cosmology [C. Chicone and B. Mashhoon, J. Math. Phys. 57, 072501 (2016)]. That is, the implications of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation are further investigated within the regime of Newtonian cosmology. In particular, we treat the nonlocal problem of structure formation for a spherically symmetric expanding dust model and show numerically that as the central density contrast grows, it tends to decrease slowly with radial distance as the universe expands. The nonlocal violation of Newton’s shell theorem provides a physical interpretation of our numerical results.

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C. Chicone and B. Mashhoon
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: 51 pages, 6 figures. Dedicated to Friedrich W. Hehl in honor of his 80th birthday

Mass function of galaxy clusters in relativistic inhomogeneous cosmology [CEA]


The current cosmological model ($\Lambda$CDM) with the underlying FLRW metric relies on the assumption of local isotropy, hence homogeneity of the Universe. Difficulties arise when one attempts to justify this model as an average description of the Universe from first principles of general relativity, since in general, the Einstein tensor built from the averaged metric is not equal to the averaged stress–energy tensor. In this context, the discrepancy between these quantities is called “cosmological backreaction” and has been the subject of scientific debate among cosmologists and relativists for more than $20$ years. Here we present one of the methods to tackle this problem, i.e. averaging the scalar parts of the Einstein equations, together with its application, the cosmological mass function of galaxy clusters.

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J. Ostrowski, T. Buchert and B. Roukema
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: 4 pages, 1 figure

The Gibbs paradox, the Landauer principle and the irreversibility associated with tilted observers [CL]


It is well known that, in the context of General Relativity, some spacetimes, when described by a congruence of comoving observers, may consist in a distribution of a perfect (non-dissipative) fluid, whereas the same spacetime as seen by a “tilted”‘ (Lorentz-boosted) congruence of observers, may exhibit the presence of dissipative processes. As we shall see, the appearence of entropy producing processes are related to the tight dependence of entropy on the specific congruence of observers. This fact is well illustrated by the Gibbs paradox. The appearance of such dissipative processes, as required by the Landauer principle, are necessary, in order to erase the different amount of information stored by comoving observers, with respect to tilted ones.

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L. Herrera
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: 10 pages Latex. Invited contribution for the special issue “Advances in Relativistic Statistical Mechanics” published in Entropy

Is the cosmological dark sector better modeled by a generalized Chaplygin gas or by a scalar field? [CEA]


Both scalar fields and (generalized) Chaplygin gases have been widely used separately to characterize the dark sector of the Universe. Here we investigate the cosmological background dynamics for a mixture of both these components and quantify the fractional abundances that are admitted by observational data from supernovae of type Ia and from the evolution of the Hubble rate.

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S. Campo, J. Fabris, R. Herrera, et. al.
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: 15 pages, 5 figures

Rapid Formation of Massive Black Holes in close proximity to Embryonic Proto-Galaxies [GA]


The Direct Collapse Black Hole (DCBH) scenario provides a solution for forming the massive black holes powering bright quasars observed in the early Universe. A prerequisite for forming a DCBH is that the formation of (much less massive) Population III stars be avoided – this can be achieved by destroying H$_2$ via Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation (E$_{\rm{LW}}$ = 12.6 eV). We find that two conditions must be met in the proto-galaxy that will host the DCBH. First, prior star formation must be delayed; this can be achieved with a background LW flux of J$_{\rm BG} \gtrsim 100\ J_{21}$. Second, an intense burst of LW radiation from a neighbouring star-bursting proto-galaxy is required, just before the gas cloud undergoes gravitational collapse, to finally suppress star formation completely. We show here for the first time using high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations, including full radiative transfer, that this low-level background, combined with tight synchronisation and irradiation of a secondary proto-galaxy by a primary proto-galaxy, inevitably moves the secondary proto-galaxy onto the isothermal atomic cooling track, without the deleterious effects of either photo-evaporating the gas or polluting it by heavy elements. These, atomically cooled, massive proto-galaxies are expected to ultimately form a DCBH of mass $10^4 – 10^5 M_{\odot}$.

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J. Regan, E. Visbal, J. Wise, et. al.
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: Published in Nature Astronomy, March 13th 2017

From voids to filaments: environmental transformations of galaxies in the SDSS [GA]


We investigate the impact of filament and void environments on galaxies, looking for residual effects beyond the known relations with environment density. We quantified the host environment of galaxies as the distance to the spine of the nearest filament, and compared various galaxy properties within 12 bins of this distance. We considered galaxies up to 10 $h^{-1}$Mpc from filaments, i.e. deep inside voids. The filaments were defined by a point process (the Bisous model) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 10. In order to remove the dependence of galaxy properties on the environment density and redshift, we applied weighting to normalise the corresponding distributions of galaxy populations in each bin. After the normalisation with respect to environment density and redshift, several residual dependencies of galaxy properties still remain. Most notable is the trend of morphology transformations, resulting in a higher elliptical-to-spiral ratio while moving from voids towards filament spines, bringing along a corresponding increase in the $g-i$ colour index and a decrease in star formation rate. After separating elliptical and spiral subsamples, some of the colour index and star formation rate evolution still remains. The mentioned trends are characteristic only for galaxies brighter than about $M_{r} = -20$ mag. Unlike some other recent studies, we do not witness an increase in the galaxy stellar mass while approaching filaments. The detected transformations can be explained by an increase in the galaxy-galaxy merger rate and/or the cut-off of extragalactic gas supplies (starvation) near and inside filaments. Unlike voids, large-scale galaxy filaments are not a mere density enhancement, but have their own specific impact on the constituent galaxies, reducing the star formation rate and raising the chances of elliptical morphology also at a fixed environment density level.

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T. Kuutma, A. Tamm and E. Tempel
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures, Astronomy & Astrophysics letters accepted

Precision Cosmology from Future Time Delays of Lensed Gravitational Wave and Electromagnetic Signals [CEA]


The”standard-siren” approaches of gravitational wave cosmology appeal to the luminosity distance estimation from the GW observation which relies on the fine details of the waveform. We propose a new waveform independent strategy based on the systems where strongly lensed gravitational waves (GWs) and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts can be detected simultaneously. With the images and redshifts observed in the EM domain combined with very precise measurements of time delays from lensed GW signals, we can achieve precise cosmography in the era of third-generation gravitational-wave detectors. In particular we demonstrate that the uncertainty of the Hubble constant $H_0$ determination from just $10$ such systems can decrease to $\sim0.4\%$ in a flat $\Lambda$CDM universe.

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K. Liao, X. Fan, X. Ding, et. al.
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: N/A

Features in single field slow-roll inflation [CEA]


We compare the effects of local features (LF) and branch features (BF) of the inflaton potential on the spectrum of primordial perturbations. We show that LF affect the spectrum in a narrow range of scales while BF produce a step between large and small scales with respect to the featureless spectrum. We comment on the possibility of distinguishing between these two types of feature models from the analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation data.
We also show that there exists a quantitative similarity between the primordial spectra predicted by two of the BF potentials considered. This could lead to a degeneracy of their predicted CMB temperature spectra which could make difficult to discriminate between the models from a CMB analysis. We comment on the possibility that the degeneracy can be broken when higher order terms in the perturbations are considered. In this sense non-Gaussianity may play an important role in discerning between different inflationary models which predict similar spectra.

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A. Cadavid
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: To be published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series as the proceedings of the 70&70 Classical and Quantum Gravitation Party: Meeting with Two Latin American Masters on Theoretical Physics (Cartagena de Indias – Colombia, 28th-30th September, 2016)

X-ray Temperatures, Luminosities, and Masses From XMM-Newton Follow-up of the First Shear-selected Galaxy Cluster Sample [CEA]


We continue the study of the first sample of shear-selected clusters (Wittman et al. 2006) from the initial 8.6 square degrees of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS, Wittman et al. 2002); a sample with well-defined selection criteria corresponding to the highest ranked shear peaks in the survey area. We aim to characterize the weak lensing selection by examining the sample’s X-ray properties. There are multiple X-ray clusters associated with nearly all the shear peaks: 14 X-ray clusters corresponding to seven DLS shear peaks. An additional three X-ray clusters cannot be definitively associated with shear peaks, mainly due to large positional offsets between the X-ray centroid and the shear peak. Here we report on the X-ray properties of the 17 X-ray clusters. The X-ray clusters display a wide range of luminosities and temperatures; the Lx-Tx relation we determine for the shear-associated X-ray clusters is consistent with X-ray cluster samples selected without regard to dynamical state, while it is inconsistent with self-similarity. For a subset of the sample, we measure X-ray masses using temperature as a proxy, and compare to weak lensing masses determined by the DLS team (Abate et al. 2009; Wittman et al. 2014). The resulting mass comparison is consistent with equality. The X-ray and weak lensing masses show considerable intrinsic scatter (~48%), which is consistent with X-ray selected samples when their X-ray and weak lensing masses are independently determined.

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A. Deshpande, J. Hughes and D. Wittman
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: 14 pages, 4 figures

A new astrophysical solution to the Too Big To Fail problem – Insights from the MoRIA simulations [GA]


We test whether advanced galaxy models and analysis techniques of simulations can alleviate the Too Big To Fail problem (TBTF) for late-type galaxies, which states that isolated dwarf galaxy kinematics imply that dwarfs live in lower-mass halos than is expected in a {\Lambda}CDM universe. Furthermore, we want to explain this apparent tension between theory and observations. To do this, we use the MoRIA suite of dwarf galaxy simulations to investigate whether observational effects are involved in TBTF for late-type field dwarf galaxies. To this end, we create synthetic radio data cubes of the simulated MoRIA galaxies and analyse their HI kinematics as if they were real, observed galaxies. We find that for low-mass galaxies, the circular velocity profile inferred from the HI kinematics often underestimates the true circular velocity profile, as derived directly from the enclosed mass. Fitting the HI kinematics of MoRIA dwarfs with a theoretical halo profile results in a systematic underestimate of the mass of their host halos. We attribute this effect to the fact that the interstellar medium of a low-mass late-type dwarf is continuously stirred by supernova explosions into a vertically puffed-up, turbulent state to the extent that the rotation velocity of the gas is simply no longer a good tracer of the underlying gravitational force field. If this holds true for real dwarf galaxies as well, it implies that they inhabit more massive dark matter halos than would be inferred from their kinematics, solving TBTF for late-type field dwarf galaxies.

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R. Verbeke, E. Papastergis, A. Ponomareva, et. al.
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: 15 pages, 14 figures. Submitted to A&A, comments welcome

Order-unity argument for structure-generated "extra" expansion [CEA]


Self-consistent treatment of cosmological structure formation and expansion within the context of classical general relativity may lead to “extra” expansion above that expected in a structureless universe. We argue that in comparison to an early-epoch, extrapolated Einstein-de Sitter model, about 10-15% “extra” expansion is sufficient at the present to render superfluous the “dark energy” 68% contribution to the energy density budget, and that this is observationally realistic.

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B. Roukema, J. Ostrowski, T. Buchert, et. al.
Tue, 14 Mar 17

Comments: 4 pages, 1 figure

Updating quasar bolometric luminosity corrections. III. [O III] bolometric corrections [GA]


We present quasar bolometric corrections using the [O III] $\lambda5007$ narrow emission line luminosity based on the detailed spectral energy distributions of 53 bright quasars at low to moderate redshift ($0.0345<z<1.0002$). We adopted two functional forms to calculate $L_{\textrm{iso}}$, the bolometric luminosity determined under the assumption of isotropy: $L_{\textrm{iso}}=A\,L_{[O\,III]}$ for comparison with the literature and log$(L_{iso})=B+C\,$log$(L_{[O\,III]})$, which better characterizes the data. We also explored whether “Eigenvector 1”, which describes the range of quasar spectral properties and quantifies their diversity, introduces scatter into the $L_{[O\,III]}-L_{iso}$ relationship. We found that the [O III] bolometric correction can be significantly improved by adding a term including the equivalent width ratio $R_{Fe\,II}\equiv EW_{Fe\,II}/EW_{H\beta}$, which is an Eigenvector 1 indicator. Inclusion of $R_{Fe\,II}$ in predicting $L_{iso}$ is significant at nearly the $3\sigma$ level and reduces the scatter and systematic offset of the luminosity residuals. Typically, [O III] bolometric corrections are adopted for Type 2 sources where the quasar continuum is not observed and in these cases, $R_{Fe\,II}$ cannot be measured. We searched for an alternative measure of Eigenvector 1 that could be measured in the optical spectra of Type 2 sources but were unable to identify one. Thus, the main contribution of this work is to present an improved [O III] bolometric correction based on measured bolometric luminosities and highlight the Eigenvector 1 dependence of the correction in Type 1 sources.

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A. Pennell, J. Runnoe and M. Brotherton
Mon, 13 Mar 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS