Far-infrared surveys of galaxy evolution [CEA]


Roughly half of the radiation from evolving galaxies in the early universe reaches us in the far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength range. Recent major advances in observing capabilities, in particular the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory in 2009, have dramatically enhanced our ability to use this information in the context of multiwavelength studies of galaxy evolution. Near its peak, three quarters of the cosmic infrared background is now resolved into individually detected sources. The use of far-infrared diagnostics of dust-obscured star formation and of interstellar medium conditions has expanded from rare extreme high-redshift galaxies to more typical main sequence galaxies and hosts of active galactic nuclei, out to z>~2. These studies shed light on the evolving role of steady equilibrium processes and of brief starbursts, at and since the peak of cosmic star formation and black hole accretion. This review presents a selection of recent far-infrared studies of galaxy evolution, with an emphasis on Herschel results

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D. Lutz
Fri, 14 Mar 14

Gravitational collapse of Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter halos [CL]


We study the mechanisms of the gravitational collapse of the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter halos, described by the zero temperature time-dependent nonlinear Schr\”odinger equation (the Gross-Pitaevskii equation), with repulsive inter-particle interactions. By using a variational approach, and by choosing an appropriate trial wave function, we reformulate the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with spherical symmetry as Newton’s equation of motion for a particle in an effective potential, which is determined by the zero point kinetic energy, the gravitational energy, and the particles interaction energy, respectively. The velocity of the condensate is proportional to the radial distance, with a time dependent proportionality function. The equation of motion of the collapsing dark matter condensate is studied by using both analytical and numerical methods. The collapse of the condensate ends with the formation of a stable configuration, corresponding to the minimum of the effective potential. The radius and the mass of the resulting dark matter object are obtained, as well as the collapse time of the condensate. The numerical values of these global astrophysical quantities, characterizing condensed dark matter systems, strongly depend on the two parameters describing the condensate, the mass of the dark matter particle, and of the scattering length, respectively. The stability of the condensate under small perturbations is also studied, and the oscillations frequency of the halo is obtained. Hence these results show that the gravitational collapse of the condensed dark matter halos can lead to the formation of stable astrophysical systems with both galactic and stellar sizes.

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T. Harko
Fri, 14 Mar 14

Bouncing cosmology in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity [CL]


We explore bounce cosmology in $F(\mathcal{G})$ gravity with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant $\mathcal{G}$. We reconstruct $F(\mathcal{G})$ gravity theory to realize the bouncing behavior in the early universe and examine the stability conditions for its cosmological solutions. It is demonstrated that the bouncing behavior with an exponential as well as a power-law scale factor naturally occurs in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We also derive the $F(\mathcal{G})$ gravity model to produce the ekpyrotic scenario. Furthermore, we construct the bounce with the scale factor composed of a sum of two exponential functions and show that not only the early-time bounce but also the late-time cosmic acceleration can occur in the corresponding modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Also, the bounce and late-time solutions in this unified model is explicitly analyzed.

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K. Bamba, A. Makarenko, A. Myagky, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14

Pixel area variations in sensors: a novel framework for predicting pixel fidelity and distortion in flat field response [IMA]


We describe the drift field in thick depleted silicon sensors as a superposition of a one-dimensional backdrop field and various three-dimensional perturbative contributions that are physically motivated. We compute trajectories for the conversions along the field lines toward the channel and into volumes where conversions are confined by the perturbative fields. We validate this approach by comparing predictions against measured response distributions seen in five types of fixed pattern distortion features. We derive a quantitative connection between “tree ring” flat field distortions to astrometric and shape transfer errors with connections to measurable wavelength dependence – as ancillary pixel data that may be used in pipeline analysis for catalog population. Such corrections may be tested on DECam data, where correlations between tree ring flat field distortions and astrometric errors – together with their band dependence – are already under study. Dynamic effects, including the brighter-fatter phenomenon for point sources and the flux dependence of flat field fixed pattern features are approached using perturbations similar in form to those giving rise to the fixed pattern features. These in turn provide drift coefficient predictions that can be validated in a straightforward manner. Once the three parameters of the model are constrained using available data, the model is readily used to provide predictions for arbitrary photo-distributions with internally consistent wavelength dependence provided for free.

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A. Rasmussen
Fri, 14 Mar 14

Optical and X-ray Rest-frame Light Curves of the BAT6 sample [HEAP]


We present the rest-frame light curves in the optical and X-ray bands of an unbiased and complete sample of Swift long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), namely the BAT6 sample. The unbiased BAT6 sample (consisting of 58 events) has the highest level of completeness in redshift ($\sim$ 95%), allowing us to compute the rest-frame X-ray and optical light curves for 55 and 47 objects, respectively. We compute the X-ray and optical luminosities accounting for any possible source of absorption (Galactic and intrinsic) that could affect the observed fluxes in these two bands. We compare the behaviour observed in the X-ray and in the optical bands to assess the relative contribution of the emission during the prompt and afterglow phases. We unarguably demonstrate that the GRBs rest-frame optical luminosity distribution is not bimodal, being rather clustered around the mean value Log(L$_{R}$) = 29.9 $\pm$ 0.8 when estimated at a rest frame time of 12 hr. This is in contrast with what found in previous works and confirms that the GRB population has an intrinsic unimodal luminosity distribution. For more than 70% of the events the rest-frame light curves in the X-ray and optical bands have a different evolution, indicating distinct emitting regions and/or mechanisms. The X-ray light curves normalised to the GRB isotropic energy (E$_{\rm iso}$), provide evidence for X-ray emission still powered by the prompt emission until late times ($\sim$ hours after the burst event). On the other hand, the same test performed for the E$_{\rm iso}$-normalised optical light curves shows that the optical emission is a better proxy of the afterglow emission from early to late times.

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A. Melandri, S. Covino, D. Rogantini, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14

A compact, metal-rich, kpc-scale outflow in FBQS J0209-0438: Detailed diagnostics from HST/COS extreme UV observations [GA]


We present HST/COS observations of highly ionized absorption lines associated with a radio-loud QSO at $z=1.1319$. The absorption system has multiple velocity components, tracing gas that is largely outflowing from the QSO at velocities of a few 100 km s$^{-1}$. There is an unprecedented range in ionization, with detections of HI, NIII, NIV, NV, OIV, OIV*, OV, OVI, NeVIII, MgX, SV and ArVIII. We estimate the total hydrogen number density from the column density ratio N(OIV*)/N(OIV) to be $\log(n_{\textrm{H}}/\textrm{cm}^3)\sim 3$. Assuming photoionization equilibrium, we derive a distance to the absorbing complex of $2.3<R<6.0$ kpc from the centre of the QSO. A range in ionization parameter, covering $\sim 2$ orders of magnitude, suggest absorption path lengths in the range $10^{-4.5}<l_{\textrm{abs}}<1$ pc. In addition, the absorbing gas only partially covers the background emission from the QSO continuum, which suggests clouds with transverse sizes $l_{\textrm{trans}}<10^{-2.5}$ pc. Widely differing absorption path lengths, combined with covering fractions less than unity across all ions pose a challenge to models involving simple cloud geometries. These issues may be mitigated by the presence of non-equilibrium effects, together with the possibility of multiple gas temperatures. The dynamics and expected lifetimes of the gas clouds suggest that they do not originate from close to the AGN, but are instead formed close to their observed location. Their inferred distance, outflow velocities and gas densities are broadly consistent with scenarios involving gas entrainment or condensations in winds driven by either supernovae, or the supermassive black hole accretion disc. In the case of the latter, the present data most likely does not trace the bulk of the outflow by mass, which could instead manifest itself as an accompanying warm absorber, detectable in X-rays.

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C. Finn, S. Morris, N. Crighton, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14

Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars [GA]


We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z=1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature, and refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with hot dust indicator (beta_NIR) and other quasar physical parameters, such as Eddington ratio, luminosity and UV continuum slope, are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here beta_NIR is the near-infrared continuum slope, a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depends on Eddington ratio, UV slope and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with beta_NIR in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with beta_NIR than Eddington ratio, luminosity and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as beta_NIR increases, while Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that dusty outflow scenario, i.e. dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely. The BAL quasar catalog is available from the authors upon request.

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S. Zhang, H. Wang, T. Wang, et. al.
Fri, 14 Mar 14