Unraveling the escape dynamics and the nature of the normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds in tidally limited star clusters [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.07287


The escape mechanism of orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit is investigated. A three degrees of freedom model is used for describing the dynamical properties of the Hamiltonian system. The gravitational field of the star cluster is represented by a smooth and spherically symmetric Plummer potential. We distinguish between ordered and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. The Smaller Alignment Index (SALI) method is used for determining the regular or chaotic nature of the orbits. The basins of escape are located and they are also correlated with the corresponding escape time of the orbits. Areas of bounded regular or chaotic motion and basins of escape were found to coexist in the $(x,z)$ plane. The properties of the normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds (NHIMs), located in the vicinity of the index-1 Lagrange points $L_1$ and $L_2$, are also explored. These manifolds are of paramount importance as they control the flow of stars over the saddle points, while they also trigger the formation of tidal tails observed in star clusters. Bifurcation diagrams of the Lyapunov periodic orbits as well as restrictions of the Poincar\’e map to the NHIMs are deployed for elucidating the dynamics in the neighbourhood of the saddle points. The extended tidal tails, or tidal arms, formed by stars with low velocity which escape through the Lagrange points are monitored. The numerical results of this work are also compared with previous related work.

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E. Zotos and C. Jung
Fri, 24 Feb 17
6/50

Comments: Published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) journal

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Chaos Control with Ion Propulsion [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.06581


The escape dynamics around the triangular Lagrangian point L5 in the real Sun-Earth-Moon-Spacecraft system is investigated. Appearance of the finite time chaotic behaviour suggests that widely used methods and concepts of dynamical system theory can be useful in constructing a desired mission design. Existing chaos control methods are modified in such a way that we are able to protect a test particle from escape. We introduce initial condition maps in order to have a suitable numerical method to describe the motion in high dimensional phase space. Results show that the structure of initial condition maps can be split into two well-defined domains. One of these two parts has a regular contiguous shape and is responsible for long time escape; it is a long-lived island. The other one shows a filamentary fractal structure in initial condition maps. The short time escape is governed by this object. This study focuses on a low-cost method which successfully transfers a reference trajectory between these two regions using an appropriate continuous control force. A comparison of the Earth-Moon transfer is also presented to show the efficiency of our method.

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J. Sliz, T. Kovacs and A. Suli
Thu, 23 Feb 17
20/48

Comments: 14 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomische Nachrichten

The gluon condensation at high energy hadron collisions [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.02249


We report that the saturation/CGC model of gluon distribution is unstable under action of the chaotic solution in a nonlinear QCD evolution equation, and it evolves to the distribution with a sharp peak at the critical momentum. We find that this gluon condensation is caused by a new kind of shadowing-antishadowing effects, and it leads to a series of unexpected effects in high energy hadron collisions including astrophysical events. For example, the extremely intense fluctuations in the transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions of the gluon jets present the gluon-jet bursts; a sudden increase of the proton-proton cross sections may fill the GZK suppression; the blocking QCD evolution will restrict the maximum available energy of the hadron-hadron colliders.

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W. Zhu and J. Lan
Thu, 9 Feb 17
58/67

Comments: 45 pages, 19 figures, to be published in Nucl. Phys. B

The structure of invariant tori in a 3D galactic potential [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1009.1993


We study in detail the structure of phase space in the neighborhood of stable periodic orbits in a rotating 3D potential of galactic type. We have used the color and rotation method to investigate the properties of the invariant tori in the 4D spaces of section. We compare our results with those of previous works and we describe the morphology of the rotational, as well as of the tube tori in the 4D space. We find sticky chaotic orbits in the immediate neighborhood of sets of invariant tori surrounding 3D stable periodic orbits. Particularly useful for galactic dynamics is the behavior of chaotic orbits trapped for long time between 4D invariant tori. We find that they support during this time the same structure as the quasi-periodic orbits around the stable periodic orbits, contributing however to a local increase of the dispersion of velocities. Finally we find that the tube tori do not appear in the 3D projections of the spaces of section in the axisymmetric Hamiltonian we examined.

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M. Katsanikas and P. Patsis
Mon, 9 Jan 17
21/52

Comments: 26 pages, 34 figures, accepted for publication in the International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos

Chains of rotational tori and filamentary structures close to high multiplicity periodic orbits in a 3D galactic potential [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1103.3981


This paper discusses phase space structures encountered in the neighborhood of periodic orbits with high order multiplicity in a 3D autonomous Hamiltonian system with a potential of galactic type. We consider 4D spaces of section and we use the method of color and rotation [Patsis and Zachilas 1994] in order to visualize them. As examples we use the case of two orbits, one 2-periodic and one 7-periodic. We investigate the structure of multiple tori around them in the 4D surface of section and in addition we study the orbital behavior in the neighborhood of the corresponding simple unstable periodic orbits. By considering initially a few consequents in the neighborhood of the orbits in both cases we find a structure in the space of section, which is in direct correspondence with what is observed in a resonance zone of a 2D autonomous Hamiltonian system. However, in our 3D case we have instead of stability islands rotational tori, while the chaotic zone connecting the points of the unstable periodic orbit is replaced by filaments extending in 4D following a smooth color variation. For more intersections, the consequents of the orbit which started in the neighborhood of the unstable periodic orbit, diffuse in phase space and form a cloud that occupies a large volume surrounding the region containing the rotational tori. In this cloud the colors of the points are mixed. The same structures have been observed in the neighborhood of all m-periodic orbits we have examined in the system. This indicates a generic behavior.

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M. Katsanikas, P. Patsis and A. Pinotsis
Mon, 9 Jan 17
26/52

Comments: 12 pages,22 figures, Accepted for publication in the International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos

The structure and evolution of confined tori near a Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1012.2463


We study the orbital behavior at the neighborhood of complex unstable periodic orbits in a 3D autonomous Hamiltonian system of galactic type. At a transition of a family of periodic orbits from stability to complex instability (also known as Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation) the four eigenvalues of the stable periodic orbits move out of the unit circle. Then the periodic orbits become complex unstable. In this paper we first integrate initial conditions close to the ones of a complex unstable periodic orbit, which is close to the transition point. Then, we plot the consequents of the corresponding orbit in a 4D surface of section. To visualize this surface of section we use the method of color and rotation [Patsis and Zachilas 1994]. We find that the consequents are contained in 2D “confined tori”. Then, we investigate the structure of the phase space in the neighborhood of complex unstable periodic orbits, which are further away from the transition point. In these cases we observe clouds of points in the 4D surfaces of section. The transition between the two types of orbital behavior is abrupt.

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M. Katsanikas, P. Patsis and G. Contopoulos
Mon, 9 Jan 17
42/52

Comments: 10 pages, 14 figures, accepted for publication in the International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos

Instabilities and stickiness in a 3D rotating galactic potential [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1201.2108


We study the dynamics in the neighborhood of simple and double unstable periodic orbits in a rotating 3D autonomous Hamiltonian system of galactic type. In order to visualize the four dimensional spaces of section we use the method of color and rotation. We investigate the structure of the invariant manifolds that we found in the neighborhood of simple and double unstable periodic orbits in the 4D spaces of section. We consider orbits in the neighborhood of the families x1v2, belonging to the x1 tree, and the z-axis (the rotational axis of our system). Close to the transition points from stability to simple instability, in the neighborhood of the bifurcated simple unstable x1v2 periodic orbits we encounter the phenomenon of stickiness as the asymptotic curves of the unstable manifold surround regions of the phase space occupied by rotational tori existing in the region. For larger energies, away from the bifurcating point, the consequents of the chaotic orbits form clouds of points with mixing of color in their 4D representations. In the case of double instability, close to x1v2 orbits, we find clouds of points in the four dimensional spaces of section. However, in some cases of double unstable periodic orbits belonging to the z-axis family we can visualize the associated unstable eigensurface. Chaotic orbits close to the periodic orbit remain sticky to this surface for long times (of the order of a Hubble time or more). Among the orbits we studied we found those close to the double unstable orbits of the x1v2 family having the largest diffusion speed.

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M. Katsanikas, P. Patsis and G. Contopoulos
Mon, 9 Jan 17
44/52

Comments: 29pages, 25 figures, accepted for publication in the International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos