Dual Maxwellian-Kappa modelling of the solar wind electrons: new clues on the temperature of Kappa populations [CL]


Context. Recent studies on Kappa distribution functions invoked in space plasma applications have emphasized two alternative approaches which may assume the temperature parameter either dependent or independent of the power-index $\kappa$. Each of them can obtain justification in different scenarios involving Kappa-distributed plasmas, but direct evidences supporting any of these two alternatives with measurements from laboratory or natural plasmas are not available yet. Aims. This paper aims to provide more facts on this intriguing issue from direct fitting measurements of suprathermal electron populations present in the solar wind, as well as from their destabilizing effects predicted by these two alternating approaches. Methods. Two fitting models are contrasted, namely, the global Kappa and the dual Maxwellian-Kappa models, which are currently invoked in theory and observations. The destabilizing effects of suprathermal electrons are characterized on the basis of a kinetic approach which accounts for the microscopic details of the velocity distribution. Results. In order to be relevant, the model is chosen to accurately reproduce the observed distributions and this is achieved by a dual Maxwellian-Kappa distribution function. A statistical survey indicates a $\kappa$-dependent temperature of the suprathermal (halo) electrons for any heliocentric distance. Only for this approach the instabilities driven by the temperature anisotropy are found to be systematically stimulated by the abundance of suprathermal populations, i.e., lowering the values of $\kappa$-index.

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M. Lazar, V. Pierrard, S. Shaaban, et. al.
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: Submitted to A&A

Massive Galileon Positivity Bounds [CL]


The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.

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C. Rham, S. Melville, A. Tolley, et. al.
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: 31 pages

Black hole acoustics in the minimal geometric deformation of a de Laval nozzle [CL]


The correspondence between sound waves, in a de Laval propelling nozzle, and quasinormal modes emitted by brane-world black holes deformed by a 5D bulk Weyl fluid are here explored and scrutinised. The analysis of sound waves patterns in a de Laval nozzle at a laboratory, reciprocally, is here shown to provide relevant data about the 5D bulk Weyl fluid and its on-brane projection, comprised by the minimal geometrically deformed compact stellar distribution on the brane. Acoustic perturbations of the gas fluid flow in the de Laval nozzle are proved to coincide to the quasinormal modes of black holes solutions deformed by the 5D Weyl fluid, in the geometric deformation procedure. Hence, in a phenomenological E\”otv\”os-Friedmann fluid brane-world model, the realistic shape of a de Laval nozzle is derived and its consequences studied.

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R. Rocha
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: 7 pages, 3 figures

Higher Derivative Field Theories: Degeneracy Conditions and Classes [CL]


We provide a full analysis of ghost free higher derivative field theories with coupled degrees of freedom. Assuming the absence of gauge symmetries, we derive the degeneracy conditions in order to evade the Ostrogradsky ghosts, and analyze which (non)trivial classes of solutions this allows for. It is shown explicitly how Lorentz invariance avoids the propagation of “half” degrees of freedom. Moreover, for a large class of theories, we construct the field redefinitions and/or (extended) contact transformations that put the theory in a manifestly first order form. Finally, we identify which class of theories cannot be brought to first order form by such transformations.

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M. Crisostomi, R. Klein and D. Roest
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: 26 pages, 1 figure

Cosmological Dynamics of D-BIonic and DBI Scalar Field and Coincidence Problem of Dark Energy [CL]


We study the cosmological dynamics of D-BIonic and DBI scalar field, which is coupled to matter fluid. For the exponential potential and the exponential couplings, we find a new analytic scaling solution yielding the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Since it is shown to be an attractor for some range of the coupling parameters, the density parameter of matter fluid can be the observed value, as in the coupled quintessence with a canonical scalar field. Contrary to the usual coupled quintessence, where the value of matter couple giving observed density parameter is too large to satisfy observational constraint from CMB, we show that the D-BIonic theory can give similar solution with much smaller value of matter coupling. As a result, together with the fact that the D-BIonic theory has a screening mechanism, the D-BIonic theory can solve the so-called coincidence problem as well as the dark energy problem.

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S. Panpanich, K. Maeda and S. Mizuno
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: 15 pages, 7 figures

FRiED: A novel three-dimensional model of coronal mass ejections [CL]


We present a novel three-dimensional (3D) model of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that unifies all key evolutionary aspects of CMEs and encapsulates their 3D magnetic field configuration. This fully analytic model is capable of reproducing the global geometrical shape of a CME with all major deformations taken into account, i.e., deflection, rotation, expansion, “pancaking”, front flattening and rotational skew. Encapsulation of 3D magnetic structure allows the model to reproduce in-situ measurements of magnetic field for trajectories of spacecraft-CME encounters of any degree of complexity. As such, the model can be used single-handedly for consistent analysis of both remote and in-situ observations of CMEs at any heliocentric distance. We demonstrate the latter by successfully applying the model for analysis of two CMEs.

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A. Isavnin
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: N/A

COSMOS-$e'$- soft Higgsotic attractors [CL]


In this work, we have developed an elegant algorithm to study the cosmological consequences from a huge class of quantum field theories (i.e. superstring theory, supergravity, extra dimensional theory, modified gravity etc.), which are equivalently described by soft attractors in the effective field theory framework. In this description we have restricted our analysis for two scalar fields – dilaton and Higgsotic fields minimally coupled with Einstein gravity, which can be generalized for any arbitrary number of scalar field contents with generalized non-canonical and non-minimal interactions. We have explicitly used $R^2$ gravity, from which we have studied the attractor and non-attractor phase by exactly computing two point, three point and four point correlation functions from scalar fluctuations using In-In (Schwinger-Keldysh) and $\delta {\cal N}$ formalism. We have also presented theoretical bounds on the amplitude, tilt and running of the primordial power spectrum, various shapes (equilateral, squeezed, folded kite or counter collinear) of the amplitude as obtained from three and four point scalar functions, which are consistent with observed data. Also the results from two point tensor fluctuations and field excursion formula are explicitly presented for attractor and non-attractor phase. Further, reheating constraints, scale dependent behaviour of the couplings and the dynamical solution for the dilaton and Higgsotic fields are also presented. New sets of consistency relations between two, three and four point observables are also presented, which shows significant deviation from canonical slow roll models. Additionally, three possible theoretical proposals have presented to overcome the tachyonic instability at the time of late time acceleration. Finally, we have also provided the bulk interpretation from the three and four point scalar correlation functions for completeness.

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S. Choudhury
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: 221 pages, 37 figures, 6 tables

Generalized $α$-attractor models from elementary hyperbolic surfaces [CL]


We consider generalized $\alpha$-attractor models whose scalar potentials are globally well-behaved and whose scalar manifolds are elementary hyperbolic surfaces. Beyond the Poincare disk $\mathbb{D}$, such surfaces include the hyperbolic punctured disk $\mathbb{D}^\ast$ and the hyperbolic annuli $\mathbb{A}(R)$ of modulus $\mu=2\log R>0$. For each elementary surface, we discuss its decomposition into canonical end regions and give an explicit construction of the embedding into the Kerekjarto-Stoilow compactification (which in all cases is the unit sphere), showing how this embedding allows for a universal treatment of globally well-behaved scalar potentials upon expanding their extension in real spherical harmonics. For certain simple but natural choices of extended potentials, we compute scalar field trajectories by projecting numerical solutions of the lifted equations of motion from the Poincare half-plane through the uniformization map, thus illustrating the rich cosmological dynamics of such models.

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M. Babalic and C. Lazaroiu
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: 36 pages

Chirality, extended MHD statistics and solar wind turbulence [CL]


We unite the one-flow-dominated-state (OFDS) argument of \citet{MeyrandGaltierPRL12} with the one-chiral-sector-dominated-state \citep[OCSDS:][]{hydrochirality} one to form a nonlinear extended-magnetohydrodynamics (XMHD) theory for the solar wind turbulence (SWT), both in the Hall MHD regime and in the electron inertial MHD regime \citep[modifying the theory of][]{AbdelhamidLingamMahajanAPJ16}. `Degenerate states’ in \citet{MiloshevichLingamMorrisonNJP17}’s XMHD absolute equilibria are exposed by helical mode decomposition technique, and the `chiroids absolute equilibria’ offer the statistical dynamics basis to replace the linear wave (of infinitesimal or arbitrarily finite amplitudes) arguments of previous theories with OCSDS, suggested here to unite OFDS with careful analyses for the physics of (generalized) helicity and chirality in SWT.

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J. Zhu
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: N/A

Search for axions in streaming dark matter [CL]


A new search strategy for the detection of the elusive dark matter (DM) axion is proposed. The idea is based on streaming DM axions, whose flux might get temporally enormously enhanced due to gravitational lensing. This can happen if the Sun or some planet (including the Moon) is found along the direction of a DM stream propagating towards the Earth location. The experimental requirements to the axion haloscope are a wide-band performance combined with a fast axion rest mass scanning mode, which are feasible. Once both conditions have been implemented in a haloscope, the axion search can continue parasitically almost as before. Interestingly, some new DM axion detectors are operating wide-band by default. In order not to miss the actually unpredictable timing of a potential short duration signal, a network of co-ordinated axion antennae is required, preferentially distributed world-wide. The reasoning presented here for the axions applies to some degree also to any other DM candidates like the WIMPs.

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K. Zioutas, V. Anastassopoulos, S. Bertolucci, et. al.
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: 5 pages

Cosmic Quantum Optical Probing of Quantum Gravity Through a Gravitational Lens [CL]


We consider the nonunitary quantum dynamics of neutral massless scalar particles used to model photons around a massive gravitational lens. The gravitational interaction between the lensing mass and asymptotically free particles is described by their second-quantized scattering wavefunctions. Remarkably, the zero-point spacetime fluctuations can induce significant decoherence of the scattered states with spontaneous emission of gravitons, thereby reducing the particles’ coherence as well as energy. This new effect suggests that, when photon polarizations are negligible, such quantum gravity phenomena could lead to measurable anomalous redshift of recently studied astrophysical lasers through a gravitational lens in the range of black holes and galaxy clusters.

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T. Oniga, E. Mansfield and C. Wang
Mon, 6 Mar 17

Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures

Thermal Inflation with a Thermal Waterfall Scalar Field Coupled to a Light Spectator Scalar Field [CL]


A new model of thermal inflation is introduced, in which the mass of the thermal waterfall field is dependent on a light spectator scalar field. Using the $\delta N$ formalism, the “end of inflation” scenario is investigated in order to ascertain whether this model is able to produce the dominant contribution to the primordial curvature perturbation. A multitude of constrains are considered so as to explore the parameter space, with particular emphasis to key observational signatures. For natural values of the parameters, the model is found to yield a sharp prediction for the scalar spectral index and its running, well within the current observational bounds.

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K. Dimopoulos, D. Lyth and A. Rumsey
Mon, 6 Mar 17

Comments: 14 pages, 4 figures

New Constraints and Prospects for sub-GeV Dark Matter Scattering off Electrons in Xenon [CL]


We study in detail sub-GeV dark matter scattering off electrons in xenon, including the expected electron recoil spectra and annual modulation spectra. We derive improved constraints using low-energy XENON10 and XENON100 ionization-only data. For XENON10, in addition to including electron-recoil data corresponding to about $1-3$ electrons, we include for the first time events with $\gtrsim 4$ electrons. Assuming the scattering is momentum independent, this strengthens a previous cross-section bound by almost an order of magnitude for dark matter masses above 50 MeV. The available XENON100 data corresponds to events with $\gtrsim 4$ electrons, and leads to a constraint that is comparable to the XENON10 bound above 50 MeV. We demonstrate that a search for an annual modulation signal in upcoming xenon experiments (XENON1T, XENONnT, LZ) could substantially improve the above bounds even in the presence of large backgrounds. We also emphasize that in simple benchmark models of sub-GeV dark matter, the dark matter-electron scattering rate can be as high as one event every ten (two) seconds in the XENON1T (XENONnT or LZ) experiments, without being in conflict with any other known experimental bounds. While there are several sources of backgrounds that can produce single- or few-electron events, a large event rate can be consistent with a dark matter signal and should not be simply written off as purely a detector curiosity. This fact motivates a detailed analysis of the ionization-only (“S2-only”) data, taking into account the expected annual modulation spectrum of the signal rate, as well as the DM-induced electron-recoil spectra, which are another powerful discriminant between signal and background.

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R. Essig, T. Volansky and T. Yu
Mon, 6 Mar 17

Comments: 5 pages + 4 pages appendices/references, 10 figures

Perspectives of direct Detection of supersymmetric Dark Matter in the NMSSM [CL]


In the next-to minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is a candidate for the dark matter (DM) in the universe. It is a mixture from the various gauginos and Higgsinos and can be bino-, Higgsino- or singlino-dominated. These different scenarios are investigated in detail in this letter and compared with the sensitivity of future direct DM search experiments, where we use an efficient sampling technique of the parameter space. We find that LSPs with a significant amount of Higgsino and bino admixture will have cross sections in reach of future direct DM experiments, so the background from coherent neutrino scattering is not yet limiting the sensitivity. Both, the spin-dependent (SD) and spin-independent (SI) searches are important, depending on the dominant admixture. If the predicted relic density is too low, additional dark matter candidates are needed, in which case the LSP direct dark matter searches loose sensitivity of the reduced LSP density. This is taken into account for expected sensitivity. The most striking result is that the singlino-like LSP has regions of parameter space with cross sections below the “neutrino floor”, both for SD and SI interactions. In this region the background from coherent neutrino scattering is expected to be too high, in which case the NMSSM will evade discovery via direct detection experiments.

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C. Beskidt, W. Boer, D. Kazakov, et. al.
Mon, 6 Mar 17

Comments: 23 pages, 6 figures

Magnetic Reconnection in Turbulent Diluted Plasmas [CL]


We study magnetic reconnection events in a turbulent plasma within the two-fluid theory. By identifying the diffusive regions, we measure the reconnection rates as function of the conductivity and current sheet thickness. We have found that the reconnection rate scales as the squared of the inverse of the current sheet’s thickness and is independent of the aspect ratio of the diffusive region, in contrast to other analytical, e.g. the Sweet-Parker and Petscheck, and numerical models. Furthermore, while the reconnection rates are also proportional to the square inverse of the conductivity, the aspect ratios of the diffusive regions, which exhibit values in the range of $0.1-0.9$, are not correlated to the latter. Our findings suggest a new expression for the magnetic reconnection rate, which, after experimental verification, can provide a further understanding of the magnetic reconnection process.

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N. Offeddu and M. Mendoza
Mon, 6 Mar 17

Comments: 9 Pages, 6 figures

Light yield determination in large sodium iodide detectors applied in the search for dark matter [CL]


Application of NaI(Tl) detectors in the search for galactic dark matter particles through their elastic scattering off the target nuclei is well motivated because of the long standing DAMA/LIBRA highly significant positive result on annual modulation, still requiring confirmation. For such a goal, it is mandatory to reach very low threshold in energy (at or below the keV level), very low radioactive background (at a few counts/keV/kg/day), and high detection mass (at or above the 100 kg scale). One of the most relevant technical issues is the optimization of the crystal intrinsic scintillation light yield and the efficiency of the light collecting system for large mass crystals. In the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) dark matter search project large NaI(Tl) crystals from different providers coupled to two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been tested at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. In this paper we present the estimates of the NaI(Tl) scintillation light collected using full-absorption peaks at very low energy from external and internal sources emitting gammas/electrons, and single-photoelectron events populations selected by using very low energy pulses tails. Outstanding scintillation light collection at the level of 15~photoelectrons/keV can be reported for the final design and provider chosen for ANAIS detectors. Taking into account the Quantum Efficiency of the PMT units used, the intrinsic scintillation light yield in these NaI(Tl) crystals is above 40~photoelectrons/keV for energy depositions in the range from 3 up to 25~keV. This very high light output of ANAIS crystals allows triggering below 1~keV, which is very important in order to increase the sensitivity in the direct detection of dark matter.

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M. Olivan, J. Amare, S. Cebrian, et. al.
Mon, 6 Mar 17

Comments: N/A

Periodic and quasi-periodic attractors for the spin-orbit evolution of Mercury with a realistic tidal torque [CL]


Mercury is entrapped in a 3:2 resonance: it rotates on its axis three times for every two revolutions it makes around the Sun. It is generally accepted that this is due to the large value of the eccentricity of its orbit. However, the mathematical model originally introduced to study its spin-orbit evolution proved not to be entirely convincing, because of the expression commonly used for the tidal torque. Only recently, in a series of papers mainly by Efroimsky and Makarov, a different model for the tidal torque has been proposed, which has the advantages of being more realistic, and of providing a higher probability of capture in the 3:2 resonance with respect to the previous models. On the other hand, a drawback of the model is that the function describing the tidal torque is not smooth and consists of a superposition of kinks, so that both analytical and numerical computations turn out to be rather delicate: indeed, standard perturbation theory based on power series expansion cannot be applied and the implementation of a fast algorithm to integrate the equations of motion numerically requires a high degree of care. In this paper, we make a detailed study of the spin-orbit dynamics of Mercury, as predicted by the realistic model: In particular, we present numerical and analytical results about the nature of the librations of Mercury’s spin in the 3:2 resonance. The results provide evidence that the librations are quasi-periodic in time.

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M. Bartuccelli, J. Deane and G. Gentile
Mon, 6 Mar 17

Comments: 32 pages, 8 figures, 5 tables

Quintessential Inflation with $α$-attractors [CL]


A novel approach to quintessential inflation model building is studied, within the framework of $\alpha$-attractors, motivated by supergravity theories. Inflationary observables are in excellent agreement with the latest CMB observations, while quintessence explains the dark energy observations without any fine-tuning. The model is kept intentionally minimal, avoiding the introduction of many degrees of freedom, couplings and mass scales. In stark contrast to $\Lambda$CDM, for natural values of the parameters, the model attains transient accelerated expansion, which avoids the future horizon problem, while it maintains the field displacement mildly sub-Planckian such that the flatness of the quintessential tail is not lifted by radiative corrections and violations of the equivalence principle (fifth force) are under control. In particular, the required value of the cosmological constant is near the eletroweak scale. Attention is paid to the reheating of the Universe, which avoids gravitino overproduction and respects nucleosynthesis constraints. Kination is treated in a model independent way. A spike in gravitational waves, due to kination, is found not to disturb nucleosynthesis as well.

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K. Dimopoulos and C. Owen
Mon, 6 Mar 17

Comments: 19 pages, 4 figures

Imaging Galactic Dark Matter with High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos [CL]


We show that the high-energy cosmic neutrinos seen by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory can be used to probe interactions between neutrinos and the dark sector that cannot be reached by current cosmological probes. The origin of the observed neutrinos is still unknown, and their arrival directions are compatible with an isotropic distribution. This observation, together with dedicated studies of Galactic plane correlations, suggest a predominantly extragalactic origin. Interactions between this isotropic extragalactic flux and the dense dark matter (DM) bulge of the Milky Way would thus lead to an observable imprint on the distribution, which would be seen by IceCube as 1) slightly suppressed fluxes at energies below a PeV and 2) a deficit of events in the direction of the Galactic center. We perform an extended unbinned likelihood analysis using the four-year high-energy starting event dataset to constrain the strength of DM-neutrino interactions for two model classes. We find that, in spite of low statistics, IceCube can probe regions of the parameter space inaccessible to current cosmological methods.

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C. Arguelles, A. Kheirandish and A. Vincent
Fri, 3 Mar 17

Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures

Comparative statistics of selected subgrid-scale models in large eddy simulations of decaying, supersonic MHD turbulence [CL]


Large eddy simulations (LES) are a powerful tool in understanding processes that are inaccessible by direct simulations due to their complexity, for example, in the highly turbulent regime. However, their accuracy and success depends on a proper subgrid-scale (SGS) model that accounts for the unresolved scales in the simulation. We evaluate the applicability of two traditional SGS models, namely the eddy-viscosity (EV) and the scale-similarity (SS) model, and one recently proposed nonlinear (NL) SGS model in the realm of compressible MHD turbulence. Using 209 simulations of decaying, supersonic (initial sonic Mach number of ~3) MHD turbulence with a shock-capturing scheme and varying resolution, SGS model and filter, we analyze the ensemble statistics of kinetic and magnetic energy spectra and structure functions. Furthermore, we compare the temporal evolution of lower and higher order statistical moments of the spatial distributions of kinetic and magnetic energy, vorticity, current density, and dilatation magnitudes. We find no statistical influence on the evolution of the flow by any model if grid-scale quantities are used to calculate SGS contributions. In addition, the SS models, which employ an explicit filter, have no impact in general. On the contrary, both EV and NL models change the statistics if an explicit filter is used. For example, they slightly increase the dissipation on the smallest scales. We demonstrate that the nonlinear model improves higher order statistics already with a small explicit filter, i.e. a three-point stencil. The results of e.g. the structure functions or the skewness and kurtosis of the current density distribution are closer to the ones obtained from simulations at higher resolution. We conclude that the nonlinear model with a small explicit filter is suitable for application in more complex scenarios when higher order statistics are important.

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P. Grete, D. Vlaykov, W. Schmidt, et. al.
Fri, 3 Mar 17

Comments: 13 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in PRE

Understanding the thermal history of the Universe through direct and indirect detection of dark matter [CL]


We study if prospective detection of dark matter by direct- and indirect-detection experiments could shed light on whether dark matter was generated thermally in the freeze-out process in the early Universe. By simulating signals that could be seen in near future and reconstructing dark matter properties from these signals, we showed that in the model-independent approach the answer is negative except for a thin sliver in the parameter space. However, with additional theoretical input the hypothesis about the thermal freeze-out can potentially be verified, as illustrated with two examples: an effective field theory of dark matter with a vector messenger and a higgsino/wino dark matter within the MSSM.

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L. Roszkowski, S. Trojanowski and K. Turzynski
Fri, 3 Mar 17

Comments: 31 pages, 7 figures

Limits on the anomalous speed of gravitational waves from binary pulsars [CL]


A large class of modified theories of gravity used as models for dark energy predict a propagation speed for gravitational waves which can differ from the speed of light. This difference of propagations speeds for photons and gravitons has an impact in the emission of gravitational waves by binary systems. Thus, we revisit the usual quadrupolar emission of binary system for an arbitrary propagation speed of gravitational waves and obtain the corresponding period decay formula. We then use timing data from the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar and obtain that the speed of gravitational waves can only differ from the speed of light at the percentage level. This bound places tight constraints on dark energy models featuring an anomalous propagations speed for the gravitational waves.

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H. Velten, J. Jimenez and F. Piazza
Fri, 3 Mar 17

Comments: 6 pages, 1 figure, Prepared for the IWARA2016 proceedings

Rotation of polarization by a moving gravitational lens [CL]


We present a simple prescription for the rotation of polarization produced by a relativistically moving gravitational lens, applicable to arbitrary deflection angle and arbitrary velocity of the lens. When geometric optics is applicable, two independent components contribute to the total rotation of polarization: (i) in the frame of the lens the polarization vector experiences minimal rotation defined by the deflection angle (as measured by a set of remote observers, or no rotation if defined in terms of parallel-propagated tetrad); (ii) the effect of the motion of the lens on the polarization can be taken into account exactly using special relativistic Lorentz transformation of polarization. The effects of the gravitational lensing are thus parametrized by the deflection angle of the null geodesics (not necessarily small) and the motion of the lens (not necessarily with velocities much smaller than that of light).

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M. Lyutikov
Fri, 3 Mar 17

Comments: N/A

A frequency-domain implementation of the particle-without-particle approach to EMRIs [CL]


The gravitational waves emitted by binary systems with extreme mass ratios carry unique astrophysical information expected to be probed by the next generation of gravitational wave detectors such as LISA. The detection of these binaries rely on an accurate modeling of the gravitational self-force that drives their orbital evolution. Although the theoretical formalism to compute the self-force has been largely established, the mathematical tools needed to implement it are still under development, and the self-force computation remains an open problem. We present here a frequency-domain implementation of the particle-without-particle (PwP) technique previously developed for the computation of the scalar self-force — a helpful testbed for the gravitational self-force.

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M. Oltean, C. Sopuerta and A. Spallicci
Fri, 3 Mar 17

Comments: 2 pages, to appear in the proceedings of the 11th International LISA Symposium (Zurich, 5-9 September 2016), in Journal of Physics: Conference Series

Collective neutrino oscillations and neutrino wave packets [CL]


Effects of decoherence by wave packet separation on collective neutrino oscillations in dense neutrino gases are considered. We estimate the length of the wave packets of neutrinos produced in core collapse supernovae and the expected neutrino coherence length, and then proceed to consider the decoherence effects within the density matrix formalism of neutrino flavour transitions. First, we demonstrate that for neutrino oscillations in vacuum the decoherence effects are described by a damping term in the equation of motion of the density matrix of a neutrino as a whole (as contrasted to that of the fixed-momentum components of the neutrino density matrix). Next, we consider neutrino oscillations in ordinary matter and dense neutrino backgrounds, both in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes. In the latter case we study two specific models of adiabaticity violation — one with short-term and another with extended non-adiabaticity. It is demonstrated that, while in the adiabatic case a damping term is present in the equation of motion of the neutrino density matrix (just like in the vacuum oscillation case), no such term in general appears in the non-adiabatic regime.

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E. Akhmedov, J. Kopp and M. Lindner
Thu, 2 Mar 17

Comments: LaTeX, 38 pages

The Gravitational Wave Physics [CL]


The direct detection of gravitational wave by LIGO indicates the coming of the era of gravitational wave astronomy and gravitational wave cosmology. It is expected that more and more gravitational wave events will be detected by currently existing and planed gravitational wave detectors. The gravitational waves open a new window to explore the Universe and various mysteries will be disclosed through the gravitational wave detection, combined with other cosmological probes. The gravitational wave physics is not only related to gravitation theory, but also is closely tied to fundamental physics, cosmology and astrophysics. In this review article, three kinds of sources of gravitational waves and relevant physics will be discussed, namely gravitational waves produced during the inflation and preheating phases of the Universe, the gravitational waves produced during the first order phase transition as the Universe cools down and the gravitational waves from the three phases: inspiral, merger and ringdown of a compact binary system, respectively. We will also discuss the gravitational waves as a standard siren to explore the evolution of the Universe.

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R. Cai, Z. Cao, Z. Guo, et. al.
Thu, 2 Mar 17

Comments: 37 pages, 7 figures, invited review for National Science Review

Photonic Chiral Vortical Effect [CL]


Circularly polarized photons have the Berry curvature in the semiclassical regime. Based on the kinetic equation for such chiral photons, we derive the (non)equilibrium expression of the photon current in the direction of the vorticity. We briefly discuss the relevance of this “photonic chiral vortical effect” in pulsars and rotating massive stars and its possible realization in semiconductors.

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N. Yamamoto
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: 9 pages

The Dark Side of MSW: Solar Neutrinos as a Probe of Dark Matter-Neutrino Interactions [CL]


Sterile neutrinos at the eV scale have long been studied in the context of anomalies in short baseline neutrino experiments. Their cosmology can be made compatible with our understanding of the early Universe provided the sterile neutrino sector enjoys a nontrivial dynamics with exotic interactions, possibly providing a link to the Dark Matter (DM) puzzle. Interactions between DM and neutrinos have also been proposed to address the long-standing “missing satellites” problem in the field of large scale structure formation. Motivated by these considerations, in this paper we discuss realistic scenarios with light steriles coupled to DM. We point out that within this framework active neutrinos acquire an effective coupling to DM that manifests itself as a new matter potential in the propagation within a medium of asymmetric DM. Assuming that at least a small fraction of DM has been captured by the Sun, we show that a sizable fraction of the parameter space of these scenarios can be probed by solar neutrino experiments, especially in the regime of small couplings and light mediators where all other probes become inefficient. In the latter regime these scenarios behave as familiar $3+1$ models in all channels except for solar data, where a Dark MSW effect takes place. Solar Dark MSW is characterized by sizable modifications of the most energetic $^8$B and CNO neutrinos, whereas the other fluxes remain largely unaffected.

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F. Capozzi, I. Shoemaker and L. Vecchi
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: 19 pages, 6 figures

Isostatic equilibrium in spherical coordinates and implications for crustal thickness on the Moon, Mars, Enceladus, and elsewhere [CL]


Isostatic equilibrium is commonly understood to be the state of equilibrium–neglecting mantle dynamics and the slow relaxation of the crust–achieved when there are no lateral gradients in hydrostatic or lithostatic pressure, and thus no lateral flow, at depth within the lower viscosity mantle that underlies the outer crust of a planetary body. In a constant-gravity Cartesian framework, this definition is equivalent to the requirement that columns of equal width contain equal masses. Here we show, however, that this equivalence breaks down when the spherical geometry of the problem is taken into account. Imposing the ‘equal masses’ requirement in a spherical geometry, as is commonly done in the literature, leads to significant lateral pressure gradients along internal equipotential surfaces, and thus corresponds to a state of disequilibrium. Compared with the ‘equal pressures’ model we present here, the ‘equal masses’ model always leads to an overestimate of the compensation depth. The magnitude of the discrepancy depends on the density structure of the body and the wavelength of the relevant topography, and is most pronounced when the compensation depth is a substantial fraction of the body’s radius. Compared with the ‘equal pressures’ model, we show that analyses incorporating the ‘equal masses’ model may overestimate crustal thicknesses by as much as ~27% in the case of the lunar highlands, by ~10% in the case of the Martian highlands, and by nearly a factor of two in the case of Saturn’s small icy moon Enceladus.

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D. Hemingway and I. Matsuyama
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: 22 pages of text; 3 figures; prepared for submission to GRL

On the role of magnetosonic solitons in perpendicular collisionless shock reformation [CL]


The nature of the magnetic structure arising from ion specular reflection in shock compression studies is examined by means of 1d particle in cell simulations. Propagation speed, field profiles and supporting currents for this magnetic structure are shown to be consistent with a magnetosonic soliton. Coincidentally, this structure and its evolution are typical of foot structures observed in perpendicular shock reformation. To reconcile these two observations, we propose, for the first time, that shock reformation can be explained as the result of the formation, growth and subsequent transition to a super-critical shock of a magnetosonic soliton. This argument is further supported by the remarkable agreement found between the period of the soliton evolution cycle and classical reformation results. This new result suggests that the unique properties of solitons can be used to shed new light on the long-standing issue of shock non-stationarity and its role on particle acceleration.

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R. Gueroult, Y. Oshawa and N. Fisch
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters

Gravitational radiation from compact binary systems in screened modified gravity [CL]


Screened modified gravity (SMG) is a kind of scalar-tensor theory with screening mechanisms, which can suppress the fifth force in dense regions and allow theories to evade the solar system and laboratory tests. In this paper, we investigate how the screening mechanisms in SMG affect the gravitational radiation damping effects, calculate in detail the rate of the energy loss due to the emission of tensor and scalar gravitational radiations, and derive their contributions to the change in the orbital period of the binary system. We find that the scalar radiation depends on the screened parameters and the propagation speed of scalar waves, and the scalar dipole radiation dominates the orbital decay of the binary system. For strongly self-gravitating bodies, all effects of scalar sector are strongly suppressed by the screening mechanisms in SMG. By comparing our results to observations of binary system PSR J0348+0432, we place the stringent constraints on the screening mechanisms in SMG. As an application of these results, we focus on three specific models of SMG (chameleon, symmetron, and dilaton), and derive the constraints on the model parameters, respectively.

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X. Zhang, T. Liu and W. Zhao
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: N/A

Multi-Dimensional Vlasov-Poisson Simulations with High-Order Monotonicity and Positivity Preserving Schemes [CL]


We develop new numerical schemes for Vlasov–Poisson equations with high-order accuracy. Our methods are based on a spatially monotonicity-preserving (MP) scheme, and are modified suitably so that positivity of the distribution function is also preserved. We adopt an efficient semi-Lagrangian time integration scheme which is more accurate and computationally less expensive than the three-stage TVD Runge-Kutta integration. We apply our spatially fifth- and seventh-order schemes to a suite of simulations of collisionless self-gravitating systems and electrostatic plasma simulations, including linear and nonlinear Landau damping in one-dimension and Vlasov–Poisson simulations in a six-dimensional phase space. The high-order schemes achieve a significantly improved accuracy in comparison with the third-order positive-flux-conserved scheme adopted in our previous study. With the semi-Lagrangian time integration, the computational cost of our high-order schemes does not significantly increase, but remains roughly the same as that of the third-order scheme.

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S. Tanaka, K. Yoshikawa, T. Minoshima, et. al.
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: 24 pages, 19 figures. Submitted to the Astrophysical Journal

Electroweak stability and non-minimal coupling [CL]


The measured values of the Higgs and top quark mass indicate that the electroweak vacuum is metastable if there is no new physics below the Planck scale. This is at odds with a period of high scale inflation. A non-minimal coupling between the Higgs field and the Ricci scalar can stabilize the vacuum as it generates a large effective Higgs mass during inflation. We consider the effect of this coupling during preheating, when Higgs modes can be produced very efficiently due to the oscillating Ricci scalar. We compute their effect on the effective potential and the energy density. The Higgs excitations are defined with respect to the adiabatic vacuum. We study the adiabaticity conditions and find that the dependence of our results on the choice of the order of the adiabatic vacuum increases with time. For large enough coupling particle production is so efficient that the Higgs decays to the true vacuum before this is an issue. However, for smaller values of the Higgs-curvature coupling no definite statements can be made as the vacuum dependence is large.

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M. Postma and J. Vis
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: 31 pages, 13 figures

First Demonstration of a Scintillating Xenon Bubble Chamber for Dark Matter and CE$ν$NS Detection [CL]


A 30-gram xenon bubble chamber, operated at Northwestern University in June and November 2016, has for the first time observed simultaneous bubble nucleation and scintillation by nuclear recoils in liquid xenon. This chamber is instrumented with a CCD camera for near-IR bubble imaging, a solar-blind PMT to detect 175-nm xenon scintillation light, and a piezoelectric acoustic transducer to detect the ultrasonic emission from a growing bubble. The time-of-nucleation determined from the acoustic signal is used to correlate specific scintillation pulses with bubble-nucleating events. The observed single- and multiple-bubble rates when exposed to a $^{252}$Cf neutron source indicate that, for a thermodynamic “Seitz” threshold of 8.3 keV, the minimum nuclear recoil energy required to nucleate a bubble is between 11 and 25 keV. This is consistent with the observed scintillation spectrum for bubble-nucleating events. We see no evidence for bubble nucleation by gamma rays at the thresholds studied, setting a 90% CL upper limit of $6.3\times10^{-7}$ bubbles per gamma interaction at a 4.2-keV thermodynamic threshold. This indicates stronger gamma discrimination than in CF$_3$I bubble chambers, supporting the hypothesis that scintillation production suppresses bubble nucleation by electron recoils, while nuclear recoils nucleate bubbles as usual. These measurements establish the noble-liquid bubble chamber as a promising new technology for WIMP and CE$\nu$NS detection.

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D. Baxter, C. Chen, M. Crisler, et. al.
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures

Electroweak baryogenesis from a dark sector [CL]


Adding an extra singlet scalar $S$ to the Higgs sector can provide a barrier at tree level between a false vacuum with restored electroweak symmetry and the true one. This has been demonstrated to readily give a strong phase transition as required for electroweak baryogenesis. We show that with the addition of a fermionic dark matter particle $\chi$ coupling to $S$, a simple UV-complete model can realize successful electroweak baryogenesis. The dark matter gets a CP asymmetry that is transferred to the standard model through a $CP\ portal\ interaction$, which we take to be a coupling of $\chi$ to $\tau$ leptons and an inert Higgs doublet. The CP asymmetry induced in left-handed $\tau$ leptons biases sphalerons to produce the baryon asymmetry. The model has promising discovery potential at the LHC, while robustly providing a large enough baryon asymmetry and correct dark matter relic density with reasonable values of the couplings.

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J. Cline, K. Kainulainen and D. Tucker-Smith
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: 14 pages, 13 figures

Cosmology in beyond-generalized Proca theories [CL]


The beyond-generalized Proca theories are the extension of second-order massive vector-tensor theories (dubbed generalized Proca theories) with two transverse vector modes and one longitudinal scalar besides two tensor polarizations. Even with this extension, the propagating degrees of freedom remain unchanged on the isotropic cosmological background without an Ostrogradski instability. We study the cosmology in beyond-generalized Proca theories by paying particular attention to the dynamics of late-time cosmic acceleration and resulting observational consequences. We derive conditions for avoiding ghosts and instabilities of tensor, vector, scalar perturbations and discuss viable parameter spaces in concrete models allowing the dark energy equation of state smaller than $-1$. The propagation speeds of those perturbations are subject to modifications beyond the domain of generalized Proca theories. There is a mixing between scalar and matter sound speeds, but such a mixing is suppressed during most of the cosmic expansion history without causing a new instability. On the other hand, we find that derivative interactions arising in beyond-generalized Proca theories give rise to important modifications to the cosmic growth history. The growth rate of matter perturbations can be compatible with the redshift-space distortion data due to the realization of gravitational interaction weaker than that in generalized Proca theories. Thus, it is possible to distinguish the dark energy model in beyond-generalized Proca theories from the counterpart in generalized Proca theories as well as from the $\Lambda$CDM model.

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S. Nakamura, R. Kase and S. Tsujikawa
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: 20 pages, 9 figures

On the cosmological (in)viability of $f(R,T)$ gravity [CL]


Among many alternative gravitational theories to General Relativity (GR), $f(R,T)$ gravity (where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $T$ the trace of the energy-momentum tensor) has been widely studied recently. By adding a matter contribution to the gravitational Lagrangian, $f(R,T)$ theories have become an interesting extension to GR displaying a broad phenomenology in astrophysics and cosmology. In this paper, we discuss however the difficulties appearing in explaining a viable and realistic cosmology within the $f(R,T)$ class of theories. Our results challenge the viability of $f(R,T)$ as an alternative modification of gravity.

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H. Velten and T. Carames
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures

Nonlocally interacting metrics and cosmic acceleration [CL]


We propose a simple, nonlocal modification to general relativity (GR) on large scales, which provides a model of late-time cosmic acceleration in the absence of a cosmological constant and with the same number of free parameters as in standard cosmology. The model is constructed by adding to the gravity sector an extra spin-2 field interacting nonlocally with the physical metric coupled to matter. The model is inspired by the simplest form of the Deser-Woodard (DW) model, $\alpha R\frac{1}{\Box}R$, with one of the Ricci scalars replaced by the one associated with the extra metriclike field. We study cosmic expansion histories, and demonstrate that this new model can provide background expansions consistent with observations, in contrast to the simple DW model. We also compare the cosmology of the model to that of the Maggiore-Mancarella (MM) model, $m^2R\frac{1}{\Box^2}R$, and demonstrate that the viable cosmic histories follow the standard-model evolution more closely compared to the MM model. In addition, we show that the consistency conditions on the proposed model of nonlocally interacting metrics render it effectively equivalent to a single-metric model where gravity is modified in the infrared by adding a simple term of the form $m^2\frac{1}{\Box}R$, with $m$ being a constant of the order of the Hubble expansion rate today. We further demonstrate that the model possesses the same number of physical degrees of freedom as in GR. Finally, we discuss the appearance of ghosts in the local formulation of the model, and argue that they are unphysical and harmless to the theory, keeping the physical degrees of freedom healthy.

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V. Vardanyan, Y. Akrami, L. Amendola, et. al.
Wed, 1 Mar 17

Comments: 28 pages, 6 figures

Cosmological Implications of Dark Matter Bound States [CL]


We present generic formulae for computing how Sommerfeld corrections together with bound-state formation affects the thermal abundance of Dark Matter with non-abelian gauge interactions. We consider DM as a fermion 3plet (wino) or 5plet under SU(2)$_L$. In the latter case bound states raise to 11.5 TeV the DM mass required to reproduce the cosmological DM abundance and give indirect detection signals such as (for this mass) a dominant $\gamma$-line around 70 GeV. Furthermore, we consider DM co-annihilating with a colored particle, such as a squark or a gluino, finding that bound state effects are especially relevant in the latter case.

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A. Mitridate, M. Redi, J. Smirnov, et. al.
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: 40 pages, 11 figures. v2: ref.s added, typos corrected, discussion of indirect detection signals expanded

Compact stars in the braneworld: a new branch of stellar configurations with arbitrarily large mass [CL]


We study the properties of compact stars in the Randall-Sundrum II type braneworld model. To this end, we solve the braneworld generalization of the stellar structure equations for a static fluid distribution with spherical symmetry considering that the spacetime outside the star is described by a Schwarzschild metric. First, the stellar structure equations are integrated employing the so called causal limit equation of state (EOS), which is constructed using a well established EOS at densities below a fiducial density, and the causal EOS $P= \rho$ above it. It is a standard procedure in general relativistic stellar structure calculations to use such EOS for obtaining a limit in the mass radius diagram, known as causal limit, above which no stellar configurations are possible if the EOS fulfills that the sound velocity is smaller than the speed of light. We find that the equilibrium solutions in the braneworld model can violate the general relativistic causal limit and, for sufficiently large mass they approach asymptotically to the Schwarzschild limit $M = 2 R$. Then, we investigate the properties of hadronic and strange quark stars using two typical EOSs. For masses below $\sim 1.5 – 2 M_{\odot}$, the mass versus radius curves show the typical behavior found within the frame of General Relativity. However, we also find a new branch of stellar configurations that can violate the general relativistic causal limit and that in principle may have an arbitrarily large mass. The stars belonging to this new branch are supported against collapse by the nonlocal effects of the bulk on the brane. We also show that these stars are always stable under small radial perturbations. These results support the idea that traces of extra-dimensions might be found in astrophysics, specifically through the analysis of masses and radii of compact objects.

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G. Lugones and J. Arbanil
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: to appear in Physical Review D

keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter [CL]


We give an overview of the current status of keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter. After a short introduction, we start by a general discussion of non-thermal production of Dark Matter, which applies to the three most commonly discussed mechanisms to produce sterile neutrino Dark Matter in the Universe: non-resonant, resonant, and decay production. The main goal in each case is to compute the momentum distribution function $f(p,t)$, which incorporates the full information about the Dark Matter setting under consideration, at least in what concerns its cosmological aspects. While some difficulties lie in the actual computation of this quantity, it is decisive to obtain bounds from cosmic structure formation, which turn out to be the most crucial ones to distinguish different types of production. We will introduce these bounds and we put the resulting limits into a proper context, thereby illustrating that a significant amount of relevant parameter space is available, part of which is testable in particular by Lyman-$\alpha$ data.

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A. Merle
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: 7 pages, 2 figures; Conference proceedings to the plenary talk “keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter” at NOW 2016 (Conference C16-09-04); accepted for publication by PoS; this version contains slightly updated references compared to the published version

$R+αR^n$ Inflation in higher-dimensional Space-times [CL]


We generalise Starobinsky’s model of inflation to space-times with $D>4$ dimensions, where $D-4$ dimensions are compactified on a suitable manifold. The $D$-dimensional action features Einstein-Hilbert gravity, a higher-order curvature term, a cosmological constant, and potential contributions from fluxes in the compact dimensions. The existence of a stable flat direction in the four-dimensional EFT implies that the power of space-time curvature, $n$, and the rank of the compact space fluxes, $p$, are constrained via $n=p=D/2$. Whenever these constraints are satisfied, a consistent single-field inflation model can be built into this setup, where the inflaton field is the same as in the four-dimensional Starobinsky model. The resulting predictions for the CMB observables are nearly indistinguishable from those of the latter.

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S. Otero, F. Pedro and C. Wieck
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: 15 pages, 1 figure

General Relativity from Causality [CL]


We study large families of theories of interacting spin 2 particles from the point of view of causality. Although it is often stated that there is a unique Lorentz invariant effective theory of massless spin 2, namely general relativity, other theories that utilize higher derivative interactions do in fact exist. These theories are distinct from general relativity, as they permit any number of species of spin 2 particles, are described by a much larger set of parameters, and are not constrained to satisfy the equivalence principle. We consider the leading spin 2 couplings to scalars, fermions, and vectors, and systematically study signal propagation in all these other families of theories. We find that most interactions directly lead to superluminal propagation of either a spin 2 particle or a matter particle, and interactions that are subluminal generate other interactions that are superluminal. Hence, such theories of interacting multiple spin 2 species have superluminality, and by extension, acausality. This is radically different to the special case of general relativity with a single species of minimally coupled spin 2, which leads to subluminal propagation from sources satisfying the null energy condition. This pathology persists even if the spin 2 field is massive. We compare these findings to the analogous case of spin 1 theories, where higher derivative interactions can be causal. This makes the spin 2 case very special, and suggests that multiple species of spin 2 is forbidden, leading us to general relativity as essentially the unique internally consistent effective theory of spin 2.

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M. Hertzberg and M. Sandora
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: 30 pages, 4 figures, 1 table

Radiative association of C(${}^3P$) and H${}^+$: Triplet states [CL]


The radiative association of C(${}^3P$) and H${}^+$ is investigated by calculating cross sections for photon emission into bound ro-vibrational states of CH${}^+$ from the vibrational continua of initial triplet d$\,{}^3\Pi$ or b$\,{}^3\Sigma^-$ states. Potential energy curves and transition dipole moments are calculated using multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) methods with AV6Z basis sets. The cross sections are evaluated using quantum-mechanical methods and rate coefficients are calculated. The rate coefficients are about 100 times larger than those for radiative association of C${}^+({}^2{P^o})$ and H from the A$\,{}^1\Pi$ state. We also confirm that the formation of CH${}^+$ by radiative association of C${}^+({}^2{P^o})$ and H via the triplet c$\,{}^3\Sigma^+$ state is a minor process.

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J. Babb and B. McLaughlin
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: 7 pages

Anisotropic power-law inflation in a two-scalar-field model with a mixed kinetic term [CL]


We examine whether an extended scenario of a two-scalar-field model, in which a mixed kinetic term of canonical and phantom scalar fields is involved, admits the Bianchi type I metric, which is homogeneous but anisotropic spacetime, as its power-law solutions. Then we analyze the stability of the anisotropic power-law solutions to see whether these solutions respect the cosmic no-hair conjecture or not during the inflationary phase. In addition, we will also investigate a special scenario, where the pure kinetic terms of canonical and phantom fields disappear altogether in field equations, to test again the validity of cosmic no-hair conjecture. As a result, the cosmic no-hair conjecture always holds in both these scenarios due to the instability of the corresponding anisotropic inflationary solutions.

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T. Do and S. Nguyen
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: 19 pages, no figures. Accepted for publication in International Journal of Modern Physics D

Short-baseline electron antineutrino disappearance study by using neutrino sources from $^{13}$C + $^{9}$Be reaction [CL]


To investigate the existence of sterile neutrino, we propose a new neutrino production method using $^{13}$C beams and a $^{9}$Be target for short-baseline electron antineutrino (${\bar{\nu}}_{e}$) disappearance study. The production of secondary unstable isotopes which can emit neutrinos from the $^{13}$C + $^{9}$Be reaction is calculated with three different nucleus-nucleus (AA) reaction models. Different isotope yields are obtained using these models, but the results of the neutrino flux are found to have unanimous similarities. This feature gives an opportunity to study neutrino oscillation through shape analysis. In this work, expected neutrino flux and event rates are discussed in detail through intensive simulation of the light ion collision reaction and the neutrino flux from the beta decay of unstable isotopes followed by this collision. Together with the reactor and accelerator anomalies, the present proposed ${\bar{\nu}}_{e}$ source is shown to be a practically alternative test of the existence of the $\Delta m^{2}$ $\sim$ 1 eV$^{2}$ scale sterile neutrino.

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J. Shin, M. Cheoun, T. Kajino, et. al.
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: N/A

Cosmic abundances of SIMP dark matter [CL]


Thermal production of light dark matter with sub-GeV scale mass can be attributed to $3\rightarrow 2$ self-annihilation processes. We consider the thermal average for annihilation cross sections of dark matter at $3\rightarrow 2$ and general higher-order interactions. A correct thermal average for initial dark matter particles is important, in particular, for annihilation cross sections with overall velocity dependence and/or resonance poles. We apply our general results to benchmark models for SIMP dark matter and discuss the effects of the resonance pole in determining the relic density.

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S. Choi, H. Lee and M. Seo
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: 20 pages, 6 figures

Terrestrial Effects on Dark Matter-Electron Scattering Experiments [CL]


A well-studied possibility is that dark matter may reside in a sector secluded from the Standard Model, except for the so-called photon portal: kinetic mixing between the ordinary and dark photons. Such interactions can be probed at dark matter direct detection experiments, and new experimental techniques involving detection of dark matter-electron scattering offer new sensitivity to sub-GeV dark matter. Typically however it is implicitly assumed that the dark matter is not altered as it traverses the Earth to arrive at the detector. In this paper we study in detail the effects of terrestrial stopping on dark photon models of dark matter, and find that they significantly reduce the sensitivity of XENON10 and DAMIC. In particular we find that XENON10 only excludes masses in the range (5-3000) MeV while DAMIC only probes (20-50) MeV. Their corresponding cross section sensitivity is reduced to a window of cross sections between $(5\times 10^{-38}-10^{-30})~{\rm cm}^{2}$ for XENON10 and a small window around $\sim 10^{-31}~{\rm cm}^{2}$ for DAMIC. We also examine implications for a future DAMIC run.

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T. Emken, C. Kouvaris and I. Shoemaker
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures

Memory in de Sitter space and BMS-like supertranslations [CL]


It is well known that the memory effect in flat spacetime is parametrized by the BMS supertranslation. We investigate the relation between the memory effect and diffeomorphism in de Sitter spacetime. We find that gravitational memory is parametrized by a BMS-like supertranslation in the static patch of de Sitter spacetime. While we do not find a diffeomorphism that corresponds to gravitational memory in the Poincare/cosmological patch, we show that we can perform a boost to bring the null related events within the static patch and apply our results. Our method does not need to assume the separation between the source and the detector to be small compared with the Hubble radius, and can potentially be applicable to other FLRW universes, as well as “ordinary memory” mediated by massive messenger particles.

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Y. Hamada, M. Seo and G. Shiu
Tue, 28 Feb 17

Comments: 21 pages, 3 figures

Gauss-Bonnet Chern-Simons gravitational wave leptogenesis [CL]


The gravitational Chern-Simons term coupled to an evolving axion is known to generate lepton number through the gravitational anomaly. We examine this leptogenesis scenario in the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term over and above the gravitational Chern-Simons term. We find that the lepton production can be exponentially enhanced. The Gauss-Bonnet term creates CP-violating instability of gravitational waves that may appear transiently after inflation, and during the period of instability elliptically polarized gravitational waves are exponentially amplified at sub-horizon scales. This instability does not affect the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background as it occurs at much shorter length scales. In a typical scenario based on natural inflation, the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe corresponds to the UV cutoff scale at $10^{14-16}$ GeV.

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S. Kawai and J. Kim
Mon, 27 Feb 17

Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures