Evolution of Galactic Outflows at $z\sim0$-$2$ Revealed with SDSS, DEEP2, and Keck spectra [GA]


We study galactic outflows of star-forming galaxies at $z\sim$0-2 based on optical spectra with absorption lines of NaID, MgI, MgII, CII, and CIV. The spectra of galaxies at $z\sim$0, 1, and 2 are taken from the large-survey data sets of SDSS DR7, DEEP2 DR4, and Erb et al. (2006), respectively. We carefully construct large and homogeneous galaxy samples with similar stellar mass distributions. We stack the galaxy spectra in our samples and perform the multi-component fitting of model absorption lines to the stacked spectra. We obtain the central ($v_\rm{out}$) and maximum ($v_\rm{max}$) outflow velocities, and estimate the mass loading factors ($\eta$) that are defined by the ratio of the mass outflow rate to the star formation rate (SFR). Because our optical spectra do not cover all of the absorption lines at each redshift, for investigating the redshift evolution, we compare outflow velocities at different redshifts with the absorption lines whose depths and ionization energies are similar. We identify, for the first time, that the average value of $v_\rm{out}$ ($v_\rm{max}$) monotonically increases by 0.1-0.4 dex from $z\sim$0 to 2 at the $\gtrsim5\sigma$ significance levels at a given SFR. Moreover, based on the absorption lines of NaID at $z\sim0$, MgI at $z\sim1$, and CII at $z\sim2$, we find that $\eta$ increases from $z\sim0$ to 2 by $\eta\propto(1+z)^{1.8\pm0.5}$ at a given halo circular velocity $v_\rm{cir}$, albeit with a potential systematics caused by model parameter choices. The redshift evolution of $v_\rm{out}$ ($v_\rm{max}$) and $\eta$ are probably explained by high gas fractions in high-redshift massive galaxies, which is supported by recent radio observations. We obtain a scaling relation of $\eta\propto v_\rm{cir}^a$ for $a=-0.5\pm1.1$ in our $z\sim0$ galaxies. This scaling relation agrees well with the momentum-driven outflow model ($a=-1$) within the uncertainty.

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Y. Sugahara, M. Ouchi, L. Lin, et. al.
Tue, 7 Mar 17

Comments: 12 pages, 8 figures, submitted to ApJ