Numerically Modeling the First Peak of the Type IIb SN 2016gkg [HEAP]

Many Type IIb supernovae (SNe) show a prominent additional early peak in their light curves, which is generally thought to be due to the shock cooling of extended hydrogen-rich material surrounding the helium core of the exploding star. The recent SN 2016gkg was a nearby Type IIb SN discovered shortly after explosion, which makes it an excellent candidate for studying this first peak. We numerically explode a large grid of extended envelope models and compare these to SN 2016gkg to investigate what constraints can be derived from its light curve. This includes exploring density profiles for both a convective envelope and an optically thick steady-state wind, the latter of which has not typically been considered for Type IIb SNe models. We find that roughly $\sim0.02\,M_\odot$ of extended material at a radius of $\sim200\,R_\odot$ reproduces the photometric light curve data, consistent with pre-explosion imaging. These values are independent of the assumed density profile of this material, although a convective profile provides a better fit. We infer from our modeling that the explosion must have occurred within $\approx2\,{\rm hrs}$ of the first observed data point, demonstrating that this event was caught very close to the moment of explosion. Nevertheless, our best-fitting one-dimensional models overpredict the earliest velocity measurements, which suggests that the hydrogen-rich material is not distributed in a spherically symmetric manner. We discuss the implications of this for Type IIb SN progenitors and explosion models.

Read this paper on arXiv…

A. Piro, M. Muhleisen, I. Arcavi, et. al.
Mon, 6 Mar 17

Comments: 7 pages, 8 figures, submitted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal