The CMB Stage 4 (CMB-S4) experiment is a next-generation, ground-based experiment that will measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization to unprecedented accuracy, probing the signature of inflation, the nature of cosmic neutrinos, relativistic thermal relics in the early universe, and the evolution of the universe. To advance the progress towards designing the instrument for CMB-S4, we have established a framework to optimize the instrumental configuration to maximize its scientific output. In this paper, we report our first results from this framework, using simplified instrumental and cost models. We have primarily studied two classes of instrumental configurations: arrays of large aperture telescopes with diameters ranging from 2-10 m, and hybrid arrays that combine small-aperture telescopes (0.5 m diameter) with large-aperture telescopes. We explore performance as a function of the telescope aperture size, the distribution of the detectors into different microwave frequencies, the survey strategy and survey area, the low-frequency noise performance, and the balance between small and large aperture telescopes for the hybrid configurations. We also examine the impact from the uncertainties of the instrumental model. There are several areas that deserve further improvement. In our forecasting framework, we adopt a simple two-component foregrounds model with spacially varying power-law spectral indices. We estimate delensing performance statistically and ignore possible non-idealities. Instrumental systematics, which is not accounted for in our study, may influence the design. Further study of the instrumental and cost models will be one of the main areas of study by the whole CMB-S4 community. We hope that our framework will be useful for estimating the influence of these improvement in future, and we will incorporate them in order to improve the optimization further.
D. Barron, Y. Chinone, A. Kusaka, et. al.
Mon, 27 Feb 17
Comments: 42 pages, 23 figures