The GOODS-N Jansky VLA 10 GHz Pilot Survey: Sizes of Star-Forming $μ$Jy Radio Sources [GA]

(Abridged) Our sensitive ($\sigma_{\rm n} = 572\,{\rm nJy\,beam}^{-1}$), high-resolution (FWHM $\theta_{1/2} = 220\,{\rm mas} \approx2\mathrm{\,kpc~at~}z\gtrsim1$) 10$\,$GHz image covering a single Karl G.~Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) primary beam (FWHM $\Theta_{1/2} = 4.25’$) in the GOODS-N field contains 32 sources with $S_{\rm p}\gtrsim2\,\mu{\rm Jy~beam}^{-1}$ and optical and/or near-infrared (OIR) counterparts. Most are about as large as the star-forming regions that power them. Their median FWHM major axis is $\langle\theta_{\rm M} \rangle=167\pm32\,{\rm mas} \approx 1.2\pm0.28\,{\rm kpc}$ with rms scatter 91 was $\approx$ 0.79 kpc. In units of the effective radius $r_{\rm e}$ that encloses half their flux, these radio sizes are $\langle r_{\rm e}\rangle = 69\pm13{\rm mas} \approx \pm114\mathrm{\,pc}$ and have rms scatter $38\mathrm{\,mas}\approx324\mathrm{\,pc}$. These sizes are smaller than those measured at lower radio frequencies, but agree with dust emission sizes measured at mm/sub-mm wavelengths and extinction-corrected H$\alpha$ sizes. We made a low-resolution ($\theta_{1/2}=1.0″$) image with $\approx10\times$ better brightness sensitivity to detect extended sources and measure matched-resolution spectral indices $\alpha_{1.4}^{10}$. It contains 6 new sources with $S_{\rm p}\gtrsim3.9\,\mu{\rm Jy~beam}^{-1}$ and OIR counterparts. The median redshift of all 38 sources is $1.24\pm0.15$. The 19 sources with 1.4$\,$GHz counterparts have median spectral index $-0.74\pm0.10$ with rms scatter $0.35$. Including upper limits on $\alpha$ for sources not detected at 1.4$\,$GHz flattens the median to $\gtrsim-0.61$, suggesting that the $\mu$Jy radio sources at higher redshifts, and hence selected at higher rest-frame frequencies, may have flatter spectra. If the non-thermal spectral index is -0.85, the median thermal fraction at rest-frame frequency 20$\,$GHz is $\gtrsim$48%.

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E. Murphy, E. Momjian, J. Condon, et. al.
Fri, 24 Feb 17

Comments: 18 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal