Cosmological Inference from Host-Selected Type Ia Supernova Samples [CEA]

We compare two Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples that are drawn from a spectroscopically confirmed SN Ia sample: a host-selected sample in which SNe Ia are restricted to those that have a spectroscopic redshift from the host; and a broader, more traditional sample in which the redshift could come from either the SN or the host. The host-selected sample is representative of SN samples that will use the redshift of the host to infer the SN redshift, long after the SN has faded from view. We find that SNe Ia that are selected on the availability of a redshift from the host differ from SNe Ia that are from the broader sample. The former tend to be redder, have narrower light curves, live in more massive hosts, and tend to be at lower redshifts. We find that constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, $w$, and the matter density, $\Omega_M$, remain consistent between these two types of samples. Our results are important for ongoing and future supernova surveys, which unlike previous supernova surveys, will have limited real-time follow-up to spectroscopically classify the SNe they discover. Most of the redshifts in these surveys will come from the hosts.

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S. Uddin, J. Mould, C. Lidman, et. al.
Mon, 26 Dec 16

Comments: Accepted for publication in PASA

Weak lensing and spectroscopic analysis of the nearby dissociative merging galaxy cluster Abell 3376 [CEA]

The galaxy cluster Abell 3376 is a nearby (z=0.046) dissociative merging cluster surrounded by two prominent radio relics and showing an X-ray comet-like morphology. The merger system is comprised of the subclusters A3376W & A3376E. Based on new deep multi-wavelength large-field images and published redshifts, we bring new insights about the history of this merger. Despite the difficulty of applying the weak lensing technique at such low redshift, we successfully recovered the mass distribution in the cluster field. Moreover, with the application of a two-body model, we have addressed the dynamics of these merging system. We have found the individual masses of M_{200}^{W}=3.01_{-1.73}^{+1.27} X 10^14 M_\odot and M_{200}^{E}=0.92_{-0.76}^{+0.45} X 10^14 M_\odot. The cometary shaped X-ray distribution shows only one peak spatially coincident with both Eastern BCG and the A3376E mass peak whereas the gas content of A3376W seems to be stripped out. Our data allowed us to confirm the existence of a third subcluster located at the North, 1147 +- 62 kpc apart from the neighbour subcluster A3376E and having a mass M_{200}^{N}=1.38_{-1.05}^{+0.68} X 10^14 M_\odot. From our dynamical analysis, we found the merging is taking place very close to the plane of the sky, with the merger axis just 10+-11 degrees from it. The application of a two-body analysis code showed that the merging cluster is seen 0.87_{-0.31}^{+0.22} Gyr after the pericentric passage and it is currently going to the point of maximum separation between the subclusters.

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R. Monteiro-Oliveira, G. Neto, E. Cypriano, et. al.
Mon, 26 Dec 16

Comments: Submitted to MNRAS on Dec 22th 2016, 13 pages, 12 figures and 5 tables. A full resolution version could be found at this https URL

Testing parity-violating physics from cosmic rotation power reconstruction [CEA]

We study the reconstruction of the cosmic rotation power spectrum produced by parity-violating physics, with an eye to ongoing and near future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments such as BICEP Array, CMBS4, LiteBIRD and Simons Observatory. In addition to the inflationary gravitational waves and gravitational lensing, measurements of other various effects on CMB polarization open new window into the early universe. One of these is anisotropies of the cosmic polarization rotation which probes the Chern-Simons term generally predicted by string theory. The anisotropies of the cosmic rotation are also generated by the primordial magnetism and in the Standard-Model Extention framework. The cosmic rotation anisotropies can be reconstructed as quadratic in CMB anisotropies. However, the power of the reconstructed cosmic rotation is a CMB four-point correlation and is not directly related to the cosmic-rotation power spectrum. Understanding all contributions in the four-point correlation is required to extract the cosmic rotation signal. Assuming a scale-invariant rotation spectrum motivated by the inflationary cosmic-rotation models, we employ simulation to quantify each contribution to the four-point correlation, and find that 1) a secondary contraction of the trispectrum increases the total signal-to-noise, 2) a bias from the lensing-induced trispectrum is significant compared to the statistical errors for e.g. LiteBIRD and CMBS4-like experiments, 3) the use of a realization-dependent estimator decreases the statistical errors by 10-20%, depending on experimental specifications, and 4) other higher order contributions are negligible at least for near future experiments.

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T. Namikawa
Mon, 26 Dec 16

Comments: 10 pages, 6 figures

Speed from light: growth rate and bulk flow at z ~ 0.1 from improved SDSS DR13 photometry [CEA]

Observed galaxy luminosities (derived from redshifts) hold information on the large-scale peculiar velocity field in the form of spatially correlated scatter, which allows for bounds on bulk flows and the growth rate of matter density perturbations using large galaxy redshift surveys. We apply this luminosity approach to galaxies from the recent SDSS Data Release 13. Our goal is twofold. First, we take advantage of the recalibrated photometry to identify possible systematic errors relevant to our previous analysis of earlier data. Second, we seek improved constraints on the bulk flow and the normalized growth rate f$\sigma_{8}$ at z ~ 0.1. Our results confirm the robustness of our method. Bulk flow amplitudes, estimated in two redshift bins with 0.02 < z$_{1}$ < 0.07 < z$_{2}$ < 0.22, are generally smaller than in previous measurements, consistent with both the updated photometry and the predictions of the $\Lambda$CDM model. The obtained growth rate, f$\sigma_{8}$ = 0.48 +/- 0.16, is larger than, but still compatible with, its previous estimate, and closer to the reference value of Planck. Rather than precision, the importance of these results is due to the fact that they follow from an independent method that relies on accurate photometry, which is a top requirement for next-generation photometric catalogs.

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M. Feix, E. Branchini and A. Nusser
Mon, 26 Dec 16

Comments: 7 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables

Prospects for Distinguishing Dark Matter Models Using Annual Modulation [CL]

It has recently been demonstrated that, in the event of a putative signal in dark matter direct detection experiments, properly identifying the underlying dark matter-nuclei interaction promises to be a challenging task. Given the most optimistic expectations for the number counts of recoil events in the forthcoming Generation 2 experiments, differentiating between interactions that produce distinct features in the recoil energy spectra will only be possible if a strong signal is observed simultaneously on a variety of complementary targets. However, there is a wide range of viable theories that give rise to virtually identical energy spectra, and may only differ by the dependence of the recoil rate on the dark matter velocity. In this work, we investigate how degeneracy between such competing models may be broken by analyzing the time dependence of nuclear recoils, i.e. the annual modulation of the rate. For this purpose, we simulate dark matter events for a variety of interactions and experiments, and perform a Bayesian model-selection analysis on all simulated data sets, evaluating the chance of correctly identifying the input model for a given experimental setup. We find that including information on the annual modulation of the rate may significantly enhance the ability of a single target to distinguish dark matter models with nearly degenerate recoil spectra, but only with exposures beyond the expectations of Generation 2 experiments.

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S. Witte, V. Gluscevic and S. McDermott
Mon, 26 Dec 16

Comments: 22 pages, 10 figures