The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterised by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. This paper introduces a systematic survey, “Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS)” of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The survey covers the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) with additional targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. More than 10,000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary. Glycolaldehyde, its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid, and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg’ and gGg’, are detected, the latter for the first time in the ISM. The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or slightly larger than that of ethylene glycol. In comparison to the Galactic Center, these two species are over-abundant relative to methanol, possibly an indication of formation at low temperatures in CO-rich ices. Both 13C and deuterated isotopologues of glycolaldehyde are detected, also for the first time ever in the ISM. For the deuterated species, a D/H ratio of approximately 5% is found with no differences between the deuteration in the different functional groups of glycolaldehyde. Measurements of the 13C-species lead to a 12C:13C ratio of approximately 30, lower than the typical ISM value. This low ratio may reflect an enhancement of 13CO in the ice due to either ion-molecule reactions in the gas before freeze-out or differences in the temperatures where 12CO and 13CO ices sublimate. The results reinforce the importance of low-temperature grain surface chemistry for the formation of prebiotic molecules seen here in the gas after sublimation of the entire ice mantle.
J. Jorgensen, M. Wiel, A. Coutens, et. al.
Mon, 1 Aug 16
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A. Abstract abridged